Advertisement

Quality & Quantity

, Volume 52, Supplement 1, pp 129–145 | Cite as

The effects of the gamified flipped classroom environment (GFCE) on students’ motivation, learning achievements and perception in a physics course

  • Gülsüm AşıksoyEmail author
Article

Abstract

Increasing students’ motivation for classes and learning has been a critical research topic in the flipped classroom approach. A gamified flipped classroom environment is proposed in this study. The objective of the study is to enhance students’ motivations, learning achievements and their perceptions of the designed environment. In the study, a true experimental design was used. The study was conducted with 61 undergraduate students taking a Physics-2 course. The experimental group students learned in the gamified flipped classroom environment, while the control group students learned with the flipped classroom approach without a gamification strategy. Data were collected from a physics motivation questionnaire, electromagnetism achievement test and semi structured interviews. The experimental results indicate that the students from the experimental group had a significantly increased motivation for the classroom and learning achievements in comparison to the students in the control group. Moreover, it has been determined that the students’ opinions on the gamified classroom environment were positive. Additionally, the students interviewed stated that the approach had positive effects on their motivation for physics class. The results of this study can assist lecturers and instructors in integrating the gamification strategy to the flipped classroom approach.

Keywords

Flipped classroom Gamification in education Motivation Learning achievement 

References

  1. Abeysekera, L., Dawson, P.: Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research. High. Educ. Res. Dev. 34(1), 1–14 (2015). doi: 10.1080/07294360.2014.934336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altinay, F., Dagli, G., Altınay, Z.: Role of technology and management in tolerance and reconciliation education. Qual. Quant. (2016). doi: 10.1007/s11135-016-0419-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Attali, Y., Arieli-Attali, M.: Gamification in assessment: Do points affect test performance? Comput. Educ. 83, 57–63 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergmann, J., Sams, A.: Flip your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. International Society for Technology in Education, Eugene (2012)Google Scholar
  5. Bishop, J.L., Verleger, M.A.: The flipped classroom: a survey of the research. Paper presented at the 120th ASEE National conference proceedings, Atlanta, GA (2013)Google Scholar
  6. Bristol, T.J.: Educate, excite, engage. Teach. Learn. Nurs. 9, 43–46 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buckley, P., Doyle, E.: Gamification and student motivation. Interact. Learn. Environ. 24(6), 1162–1175 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bunchball, I.: Gamification 101: an introduction to the use of game dynamics to influence behavior (2010). http://www.bunchball.com/sites/default/files/downloads/gamification101.pdf
  9. Butzler, K.B.: The effects of motivation on achievement and satisfaction in a flipped classroom learning environment (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Prescott Valley, Arizona (2014)Google Scholar
  10. Büyüköztürk, Ş.: Data Analysis Handbook for Social Sciences, 7th edn. Pegem A Publishing, Ankara (2007)Google Scholar
  11. Chao, C., Chen, Y., Chuang, K.: Exploring students’ learning attitude and achievement in flipped learning supported computer aided design curriculum: a study in high school engineering education. Comput. Appl. Eng. Educ. 23(4), 514–526 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charles-Ogan, G., Williams, C.: Flipped classroom versus a conventional classroom in the learning of mathematics. In: Proceedings of South Africa International Conference on Educational Technologies, pp. 96–102. African Academic Research Forum, Pretoria (2015)Google Scholar
  13. Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Kinshuk, Chen, N.S.: Is FLIP enough? Or should we use the FLIPPED model instead? Comput. Educ. 79, 16–27 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, M.C., Rossiter, M.: Narrative learning in adulthood. New Dir. Adult Contin. Educ. 119, 61–70 (2008). doi: 10.1002/ace.306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Çakıroğlu, Ü., Başıbüyük, B., Güler, M., Atabay, M., Memiş, B.Y.: Gamifying an ICT course: influences on engagement and academic performance. Comput. Hum. Behav. 69, 98–107 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies, R.S., Dean, D.L., Ball, N.: Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educ. Tech. Res. Dev. 61(4), 563–580 (2013). doi: 10.1007/s11423-013-9305-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., Nacke, L.: From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (2011)Google Scholar
  18. Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., Angelova, G.: Gamification in education: a systematic mapping study. Educ. Technol. Soc. 18(3), 75–88 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., de-, L., Fernández-Sanz, L., Pagés, C., Martínez-Herráiz, J.J.: Gamifying learning experiences: practical implications and outcomes. Comput. Educ. 63, 380–392 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. El-Banna, M.M., Whitlow, M., McNelis, A.: Flipping around the classroom: accelerated bachelor of science in nursing students’ satisfaction and achievement. Nurse Educ. Today 56, 41–46 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.06.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Field, A.: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3rd edn. Sage, London (2009)Google Scholar
  22. Fulton, K.: Upside down and inside out: flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learn. Lead. Technol. 39(8), 12–17 (2012)Google Scholar
  23. Gündüz, Ş.: A research about attitudes and behaviors of university students with having different cultures towards the environment through sustainable development. Eurasia J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ. 13(6), 1881–1892 (2017). doi: 10.12973/eurasia.2017.01206a CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Glover, I.: Play as you learn: gamification as a technique for motivating learners. In: Herrington J., et al. (eds.) Proceedings of world Conference on educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp. 1999–2008. AACE, Chesapeake (2013)Google Scholar
  25. Glynn, S.M., Taasoobshirazi, G., Brickman, P.: Science motivation questionnaire: construct validation with nonscience majors. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 46(2), 127–146 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hakulinen, L., Auvinen, T., Korhonen, A.: The effect of achievement badges on students’behavior: an empirical study in a university-level computer science course. Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn. 10(1), 18–28 (2015). doi: 10.3991/ijet.v10i1.4221 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanus, M.D., Fox, J.: Assessing the eff ects of gamification in the classroom: a longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort, and academic performance. Comput. Educ. 80, 152–161 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hao, Y.: Exploring undergraduates’ perspectives and flipped learning readiness in their flipped classrooms. Comput. Hum. Behav. 59, 82–92 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. He, W., Holton, A., Farkas, G., Warschauer, M.: The effects of flipped instruction on out-of class study time, exam performance, and student perceptions. Learn. Instruct. 45, 61–71 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Herreid, C.F., Schiller, N.A.: Case studies and the flipped classroom. J. Coll. Sci. Teach. 42(5), 62–66 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. Hew, K.F., Huang, B., Chu, K.W.S., Chiu, D.K.: Engaging Asian students through game mechanics: findings from two experiment studies. Comput. Educ. 92, 221–236 (2016). doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hultén, M., Larsson, B.: The flipped classroom: primary and secondary teachers’ views on an educational movement in schools in Sweden today. Scand. J. Educ. Res. (2016). doi: 10.1080/00313831.2016.1258662 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hung, H.T.: Clickers in the flipped classroom: bring your own device (BYOD) to promote student learning. Interact. Learn. Environ. (2016). doi: 10.1080/10494820.2016.1240090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jensen, J.L., Kummer, T.A., Godoy, P.D.D.M.: Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning. CBE-Life Sci. Educ. 14(1), 1–12 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jovanović, J., Gašević, D., Dawson, S., Pardo, A., Mirriahi, N.: Learning analytics to unveil learning strategies in a flipped classroom. Internet High. Educ. 33, 74–85 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kapp, K.M.: The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-Based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education. John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco (2012)Google Scholar
  37. Kellinger, J.J.: The flipside: concerns about the “New literacies” paths educators might take. Educ. Forum 76(4), 524–536 (2012). doi: 10.1080/00131725.2012.708102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim, M.K., Kim, S.M., Khera, O., Getman, J.: The experience of three flipped classrooms in an urban university: an exploration of design principles. Internet High. Educ. 22, 37–50 (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2016.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lai, C.L., Hwang, G.J.: A self-regulated flipped classroom approach to improving students’ learning performance in a mathematics course. Comput. Educ. 100, 126–140 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, J.J., Hammer, J.: Gamification in education: What, how, why bother? Acad. Exch. Q. 15(2), 1–5 (2011)Google Scholar
  41. Matsumoto, T.: The flipped classroom experience of gamified. Creat. Educ. 7(10), 1475–1479 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2016.710152. Retrieved 12 May 2017 from http://file.scirp.org/pdf/CE_2016071316571536.pdf
  42. McLaughlin, J.E., Griffin, L.M., Esserman, D.A, Davidson, C.A, Glatt, D.M., Roth, M.T, Mumper, R.J.: Pharmacy student engagement, performance, and perception in a flipped satellite classroom. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 77(9), Article 196 (2013)Google Scholar
  43. McLaughlin, J.E., White, P.J., Khanova, J., Yuriev, E.: Flipped classroom implementation: a case report of two higher education institutions in the United States and Australia. Comput. Sch. 33(1), 24–37 (2016). doi: 10.1080/07380569.2016.1137734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Measles, S., Abu-Dawood, S.: Gamification: game–based methods and strategies to increase engagement and motivation within an elearning environment. In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 1, pp. 809–814. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) (2015)Google Scholar
  45. Muñoz-Merino, P.J., Ruipérez-Valiente, J.A., Delgado Kloos, C., Auger, M.A., Briz, S., de Castro, V., Santalla, S.N.: Flipping the classroom to improve learning with MOOCs technology. Comput. Appl. Eng. Educ. 25(1), 15–25 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Muntean, C.I.: Raising engagement in e-learning through gamification. In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Virtual Learning ICVL, 42, 323–329 (2011)Google Scholar
  47. Murphy, K.R., Myors, B.: Statistical Power Analysis: A Simple and General Model for Traditional and Modern Hypothesis Tests, 2nd edn. Laurance Erlbaum Associates Inc, New Jersey (2004)Google Scholar
  48. O’Flaherty, J., Phillips, C.: The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: a scoping review. Internet High. Educ. 25, 85–95 (2015). doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pierce, R., Fox, J.: Instructional design and assessment: vodcasts and activelearning exercises in a “flipped classroom” model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 76(10), 1–5 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prensky, M.: Digital game-based learning. ACM Comput. Entertain. 1(1), 1–4 (2003) https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6647/f32582c749022144b79f337c73db4da2a99c.pdf
  51. Saulnier, B.M.: The flipped classroom in systems analysis & design: leveraging technology to increase student engagement. Inf. Syst. Educ. J. (ISEDJ) 13(4), 33–40 (2015)Google Scholar
  52. Simoes, J., Redondo, R.D., Vilas, A.F.: A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform. Comput. Hum. Behav. 29(2), 345–353 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Strayer, J.F.: How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learn. Environ. Res. 15(2), 171–193 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Su, C.H., Cheng, C.H.: A mobile gamification learning system for improving the learning motivation and achievements. J. Comput. Assist. Learn. 31, 268–286 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Toda, A.M., Do Carmo, R.S., Silva, A.L. ve Brancher, J.D.: Project SIGMA-An online tool to aid students in Math lessons with gamification concepts (2014). Retrieved 30 July 2014 from http://www.jcc2014.ucm.cl/jornadas/EVENTOS/SCCC%202014/SCCC-9.pdf
  56. Wang, F.H.: An exploration of online behaviour engagement and achievement in flipped classroom supported by learning management system. Comput. Educ. 114, 79–91 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Werbach, K., Hunter, D.: For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business. Wharton Digital Press, Philadelphia (2012)Google Scholar
  58. White, P.J., Larson, I., Styles, K., Yuriev, E., Evans, D.R., Short, J.L., Eise, N.: Using active learning strategies to shift student attitudes and behaviours about learning and teaching in a research intensive educational context. Pharm. Educ. 15(1), 162–172 (2015)Google Scholar
  59. Wilson, S.: The flipped class: a method to address the challenges of an undergraduate statistics course. Teach. Psychol. 40(3), 193–199 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wood, L. C., Reiners T.: Gamification in logistics and supply chain education: Extending active learning. In: IADIS Internet Technologies and Society, Perth (Australia), pp. 101–108. November 28–30 (2012)Google Scholar
  61. Wongso, O., Rosmansyah, Y., Bandung, Y.: Gamification framework model, based on social engagement in e-learning 2.0. In: 2nd International Conference on Technology, Informatics, Management, Engineering, and Environment (TIME-E), Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 10–14. August 19–21 (2014)Google Scholar
  62. Yacout, D., Shosha, A.: Nursing students’ perceptions towards flipped classroom educational strategy. J. Am. Sci. 12, 62–75 (2016). doi: 10.7537/marsjas12021607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yeung, K., O’Malley, P.: Making “The Flip” work: barriers to and implementation strategies for introducing flipped teaching methods into traditional higher education courses. New Dir. Institut. Res. 10(1), 59–63 (2014). doi: 10.11120/ndir.2014.00024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yildirim, I.: The effects of gamification-based teaching practices on student achievement and students’ attitudes toward lessons. Internet High. Educ. 33, 86–92 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yilmaz, E.A.: Oyunlaştırma. Abaküs, İstanbul (2015)Google Scholar
  66. Yilmaz, R.: Exploring the role of e-learning readiness on student satisfaction and motivation in flipped classroom. Comput. Hum. Behav. 70, 251–260 (2017). doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.085 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yong, D., Levy, R., Lape, N.: Why No Difference? A controlled flipped classroom study for an introductory differential equations course, PRIMUS 25(9–10), 907–921 (2015). doi: 10.1080/10511970.2015.1031307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Near East UniversityNicosiaTurkey

Personalised recommendations