Quality & Quantity

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 565–587 | Cite as

International trade of GMO-related agricultural products

  • Vargas Meza Xanat
  • Ke Jiang
  • George A. Barnett
  • Han Woo Park


This paper examines the international trade of a variety of genetically modified (GM) food products over a 27-year period (1984–2011) with data from the United Nations using the tools of social network analysis. The results indicate that each of the different crops have a distinctive pattern of trade that has changed over time due to a number of different factors. Also, trade in agricultural commodities became more diversified over time, dominated less by the United States and other nations central in the trade networks and trade in the individual GM crops was stable over time. Countries maintained their trading partners for specific crops, despite the adoption of the genetically modified varieties. The economic implications of these results are discussed for specific countries.


Genetically modified foods International trade Social network analysis 



The corresponding author acknowleges that this work was supported by the 2017 Yeungnam University Research Grant.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Yeungnam UniversityGyeongsanKorea

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