Barriers to women entrepreneurship. Different methods, different results?

Abstract

Building on research by Akehurst et al. (Serv Ind J 32:2489–2505, 2012), this study analysed internal and external factors in women entrepreneurship and linked these factors to the barriers that women face when starting businesses. To do so, two contrasting statistical techniques were used: PLS and QCA. After analysing results from each of these techniques, we observed that family duties and difficulties in obtaining financing (both internal and external) were the main factors related to barriers faced by women entrepreneurs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Akehurst, G., Simarro, E., Mas-Tur, A.: Women entrepreneurship in small service firms: motivations, barriers and performance. Serv. Ind. J. 32(15), 2489–2505 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bang, Y.H., Yoo, C.K., Lee, I.B.: Nonlinear PLS modeling with fuzzy inference system. Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Syst. 64(2), 137–155 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bang, R.D., Fang, M., Schwartz, S.C., Andress, K.M.: US Patent No. 5,715,325. US Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC (1998)

  4. Barroso, C., Cepeda, G., & Roldán, J.L.: Investigar en Economía de la Empresa: Partial Least Squares o modelos basados en la covarianza. In: Best Papers Proceedings (2005)

  5. Bates, T.: Restricted access to markets characterizes women-owned businesses. J. Bus. Ventur. 17, 313–324 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Berg-schlosser, D.: Determinants of democratic successes and failures in Africa. Eur. J. Politi. Res. 47(3), 269–306 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bruce, D.: Do husbands matter? Married women entering self-employment. Small Bus. Econ. 13, 317–329 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Brush, C.G.: Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrep. Theory Pract. 16(4), 5–30 (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Brush, C.G., Duhaime, I.M., Gartner, W.B., Stewart, A., Katz, J.A., Hitt, M.A., Alvarez, S.A., Meyer, G.D., Venkataraman, S.: Doctoral education in the field of entrepreneurship. J. Manag. 29, 309–331 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Carter, S., Rosa, P.: The financing of male -and female- owned businesses. Entrep. Reg. Dev. 10, 225–241 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Carter, S., Shaw, E., Lam, W., Wilson, F.: Gender, entrepreneurship, and bank lending: the criteria and processes used by bank loan officers in assessing applications. Entrep. Theory Pract. 31, 427–444 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cepeda, G., & Roldán, J.L.: Aplicando en la práctica la técnica PLS en la Administración de Empresas. In: Conocimiento y Competitividad. XIV Congreso Nacional ACEDE, pp. 74–8, Murcia (2004)

  13. Chin, W.W., Marcolin, B.L., Newsted, P.R.: A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic mail emotion/adoption study. Inf. Syst. Res. 14(2), 189–217 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Coleman, S.: Access to capital and terms of credit: a comparison of men and women-owned small business. J. Small Bus. Manag. 38(3), 37–51 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Cowling, M., Taylor, M.P.: Entrepreneurial women and men: two different species? Small Bus. Econ. 16, 167–175 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Crilly, D., Zollo, M., Hansen, M.T.: Faking it or muddling through? Understanding decoupling in response to stakeholder pressures. Acad. Manag. J. 55(6), 1429–1448 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cronbach, L.J.: Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 16, 297–334 (1951)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. DeMartino, R., Barbato, R.: Differences between women and men MBA entrepreneurs: exploring family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators. J. Bus. Ventur. 18, 815–832 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Du Rietz, A., Henrekson, M.: Testing the female underperformance hypothesis. Small Bus. Econ. 14, 1–10 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Eddleston, K.A., Powell, G.N.: The role of gender identity in explaining sex differences in business owners’ career satisfier preferences. J. Bus. Ventur. 23(2), 244–256 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Fischer, E., Reuber, R., Dyke, L.: A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender and entrepreneurship. J. Bus. Ventur. 8, 151–168 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Fiss, P.C.: A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Acad. Manag. Rev. 32(4), 1180–1198 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fiss, Peer C.: Building better causal theories: a fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Acad. Manag. J. 54(2), 393–420 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Greckhamer, T., Misangyi, V.F., Elms, H., Lacey, R.: Using QCA in strategic management research: an examination of combinations of industry, corporate, and business unit effects. Organ. Res. Methods 11(4), 695–726 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Grofman, B., Schneider, C.Q.: An introduction to crisp set QCA, with a comparison to binary logistic regression. Political Res. Q. 62, 662–672 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Henningsson, M., Sundbom, E., Armelius, B.-Å., Erdberg, P.: PLS model building: a multivariate approach to personality test data. Scand. J. Psychol. 42, 399–409 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Hertz, N.: Women and Banks Are Female Customers Facing Discrimination. IRRP 2011. Institute for Public Policy Research, London (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Herron, L., Robinson, R.: A structural model of the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics on venture performance. J. Bus. Ventur. 8, 281–294 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hinz, C.: Women beyond the pale: marital “misfits and outcasts” among Japanese women entrepreneurs. Women´s Stud. 33, 453–479 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hisrich, R.D., Brush, C.G.: The Woman Entrepreneur: Implications of Family, Educational, and Occupational Experience. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, pp. 255–270. Babson College, Wellesley (1983)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Huarng, K.H., Mas-Tur, A., Yu, T.H.K.: Factors affecting the success of women entrepreneurs. Int. Entrep. Manag. J. 8(4), 487–497 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ianello, K.P.: Decisions Without Hierarchy: Feminist Interventions in Organization Theory and Practice. Routledge, New York (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Kevane, M., Wydick, B.: Microenterprise lending to female entrepreneurs: sacrificing economic growth for poverty alleviation? World Dev. 29, 1225–1236 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Lerner, M., Almor, T.: Relationships among strategic capabilities and the performance of women-owned small ventures. J. Small Bus. Manag. 40, 109–125 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Morris, M.H., Miyasaki, N.N., Watters, C., Coombes, S.M.: The dilemma of growth: understanding venture size choices of women entrepreneurs. J. Small Bus. Manag. 44(2), 221–244 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Nunnally, J.: Psychometric Methods. McGraw, New York (1978)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Pellegrino, E.T., Reece, B.L.: Perceived formative and operational problems encountered by female entrepreneurs in retail and service firms. J. Small Bus. Manag. 20(2), 15–24 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  38. Ogbor, J.O.: Mythicizing and reification in entrepreneurial discourse: ideology-critique of entrepreneurial studies. J. Manag. Stud. 37(5), 605–635 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Ordanini, A., Maglio, P.P.: Market orientation, internal process, and external network: a qualitative comparative analysis of decisional alternatives in new service development. Decis. Sci. 40(3), 601–625 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Ordanini, A., Parasuraman, A., Rubera, G.: When the recipe is more important than the ingredients a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of service innovation configurations. J. Serv. Res. 17, 1094670513513337 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  41. Orhan, M.: Women business owners in France: the issue of financing discrimination. J. Small Bus. Manag. 39, 95–102 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ragin, C.C.: The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. University of California Press, Berkeley (1987)

    Google Scholar 

  43. Ragin, Charles C.: Fuzzy-Set Social Science. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  44. Ragin, C.C.: Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  45. Ragin, C.C., Davey, S.: fs/QCA [Computer Programme], version 2.5. University of California, Irvine, CA (2014)

  46. Rey-Martí, A., Porcar, A.T., Mas-Tur, A.: Linking female entrepreneurs’ motivation to business survival. J. Bus. Res. 68(4), 810–814 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Ribeiro, D.: Modeling the enterprising character of European firms. Eur. Bus. Rev. 15(1), 29–37 (2003a)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Ribeiro, D.: Performance of innovative SME’s. Revista Europea de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa 12(3), 119–132 (2003b)

    Google Scholar 

  49. Rihoux, B., Ragin, C.C.: Configurational Comparative Methods: Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Techniques. Sage, Los Angeles (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  50. Ronsen, M.: Children and family: a barrier or an incentive to female self-employment in Norway? Int. Labour Rev. 153(2), 337–349 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Rosa, P., Carter, S., Hamilton, D.: Gender as a determinant of small business performance: insights from a British study. Small Bus. Econ. 8, 463–478 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Schneider, C.Q., Wagemann, C.: Set-Theoretic Methods for the Social Sciences. A Guide to Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  53. Schneider, M.R., Schulze-Bentrop, C., Paunescu, M.: Mapping the institutional capital of high-tech firms: a fuzzy-set analysis of capitalist variety and export performance. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 41(2), 246–266 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Steier, L.P., Chua, J.H., Chrisman, J.J.: Embeddedness perspectives of economic action within family firms. Entrep. Theory Pract. 33(6), 1157–1167 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Storey, D.: New firm growth and bank financing. Small Bus. Econ. 6, 139–150 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Sundbom, E.: Borderline Psychopathology and the Defense Mechanism Test. PhD Dissertation, Umeå University, Umeå (1992)

  57. Umetrics, A. B. (2008). User guide to SIMCA-P+12

  58. Verheul, I., Thurik, R.: Start-up capital: does gender matter? Small Bus. Manag. 16, 329–345 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Welsh, D.H., Memili, E., Kaciak, E., Ochi, M.: Japanese women entrepreneurs: implications for family firms. J. Small Bus. Manag. 52(2), 286–305 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Wold, H.: Model Construction and Evaluation when Theoretical Knowledge Is Scarce: An Example of the Use of Partial Least Squares. Cahiers du Département D´Économétrie. Faculté des Sciences Économiques et Sociales, Université de Genève, Genève (1979)

    Google Scholar 

  61. Wold, S., Albano, C., Dunn, W.J., Esbensen, K., Hellberg, S., Johansson, E., et al.: Pattern recognition: finding and using regularities in multivariate data. In: Martens, H., Russworm, H. (eds.) Food Research and Data Analysis. Applied Science Publishers, London (1983)

    Google Scholar 

  62. Woodside, A.G., Zhang, M.: Cultural diversity and marketing transactions: are market integration, large community size, and world religions necessary for fairness in ephemeral exchanges? Psychol. Mark. 30(3), 263–276 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Yilmaz, E., Oraman, Y.: Women entrepreneurs: their problems and entrepreneurial ideas. Afr. J. Bus. Manag. 6(26), 7896–7904 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ana Tur-Porcar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tur-Porcar, A., Mas-Tur, A. & Belso, J.A. Barriers to women entrepreneurship. Different methods, different results?. Qual Quant 51, 2019–2034 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-016-0343-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Women entrepreneurship
  • Barriers
  • Partial least squares (PLS)
  • Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA)