Quality & Quantity

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 1165–1183 | Cite as

How to measure institutional diversity in higher education using revenue data



This article suggests the use of statistical analysis, based on revenue data, to measure institutional diversity. The financial statements of universities in Italy and in England are thoroughly examined in order to emphasize the levels of diversity within these two different university systems; to understand the causes of the variations; and to verify, from a longitudinal perspective, the behaviour of the universities in terms of differentiation. The aim of this paper is mainly methodological; that is, to demonstrate the potential of revenue data analysis for investigating institutional diversity. For exploratory purposes, this paper will also introduce additional considerations to the ongoing debate on institutional diversity.


Institutional diversity Higher education Revenue data Muldimensional scaling Data reduction 



We are grateful for the financial support of the project MIUR PRIN MISURA–Multivariate models for risk assessment.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative MethodsUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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