Quality & Quantity

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 1465–1483 | Cite as

Linking emergency management networks to disaster resilience: bonding and bridging strategy in hierarchical or horizontal collaboration networks



Disaster scholars have investigated the nature of organizational resilience, but extant research has not examined various network strategies within hierarchical and horizontal collaboration structures. The question of how the structural arrangements for collaboration within emergency management networks influence disaster resilience remains unanswered. This study begins to fill this lacuna by analyzing a bonding and bridging strategy for interorganizational collaboration to determine how these patterns of organizational relations might enhance the level of organizational resilience in each hierarchical and horizontal emergency management network. Bonding strategies highlight the importance of trust and information redundancy to emergency preparedness and response. Bridging strategies capture the tendency for local actors to seek partners to obtain crucial information and resources across the region. The results support the study hypothesis that bridging strategies in hierarchical emergency management networks have a positive effect on the level of organizational resilience. Neither type of network strategy influenced resilience in horizontal network structures. The findings confirm that the coordinating role of the national and provincial governments is critical to the building of a resilient community in terms of interorganizational collaboration, and demonstrate the steering role of the national and provincial governments with regard to resilience.


Organizational resilience Interorganizational emergency management collaboration Institutional collective action framework Bonding and bridging strategy 


  1. Agranoff, R., McGuire, M.: Collaborative Public Management: New Strategies for Local Governments. Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C. (2003)Google Scholar
  2. Andrew, S.A., Arlikatti, S., Siebeneck, L., Pongponrat, K., Kraiwuth, J.: Forthcoming). Factors Explaining Organizational Resilience during the Thailand Floods of 2011: A Test of Bonding and Bridging Hypotheses. Disasters. (2014)Google Scholar
  3. Andrew, S., Carr, B.Z.: Mitigating uncertainty and risk in planning for regional preparedness: the role of bonding and bridging relationships. Urban Stud. 50(4), 709–724 (2013). MarchCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhamra, R., Dani, S., Burnard, K.: Resilience: the concept, a literature review and future directions. Int. J. Prod. Res. 49(18), 5375–5393 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borgatti, S.P., Everett, M.G., Freeman, L.: UCINET version 6.00. Analytic Technologies. Columbia University, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  6. Borgatti, S.P., Mehra, A., Brass, D.J., Labianca, G.: Network analysis in the social sciences. Science 323(5916), 892–895 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P.: Economic capital, cultural capital, social capital. Soziale-Welt 2, 183–198 (1983)Google Scholar
  8. Brudney, Jeffrey L., Gazley, Beth: Planing to be prepared: an empirical examination of the role of voluntary organizations in county government emergency planning. Public Perform. Manag. Rev. 32(3), 372–399 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruneau, M., Chang, S.E., Eguchi, R.T., Lee, G.C., O’Rourke, T.D., Reinhorn, A.M., von Winterfeldt, D.: A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthq. Spectra 19(4), 733–752 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burt, R.S.: Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard Press, Cambridge (1992)Google Scholar
  11. Burt, R.S.: Brokerage and Closure-An Introduction to Social Capital: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford University Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  12. Cohn, A.D.: Mutual aid: intergovernmental agreements for emergency prepardness and response. Urban Lawyers 37(1), 1–52 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. Comfort, L.K.: Shared risk: Complex systems in seismic response. Pergamon, Amsterdam (1999)Google Scholar
  14. Comfort, L.K.: Crisis management in hindsight: cognition, communication, coordination, and control. Public Adm. Rev. 67(s1), 189–197 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Comfort, L.K., Sungu, Y., Johnson, D., Dunn, M.: Complex systems in crisis: anticipation and resilience in dynamic environments. J. Conting. Crisis Manag. 9(3), 144–158 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cutter, S.L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., Webb, J.: A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Glob. Environ. Change 18(4), 598–606 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Donaldson, L.: The normal science of structural contingency theory. Studying Organizations: Theory and Method. Sage, Thousand Oaks (1999)Google Scholar
  18. Dooley, K.J.: A complex adaptive systems model of organization change. Nonlinear Dyn. Psychol. Life Sci. 1(1), 69–97 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feiock, R.C.: Institutional collective action and local government collaboration. In: Bingham, L., O’Leary, R. (eds.) Big Ideas in Collaborative Public Management. M.E. Sharpe, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  20. Feiock, R.C.: Metropolitan governance and institutional collective action. Urban Aff. Rev. 44(3), 356–377 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feiock, R.C.: The institutional collective action framework. Policy Stud. J. 41, 397–425 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jung, K.: Community resilience and emergency management networks: following the 2012 Korean typhoons. The Natural Hazards Center (Boulder, CO), Quick Response Report QR237 (2013)Google Scholar
  23. Jung, K., Kim, Y., Song, M., Kim, J. W.: “Social media use for building safe Seoul: focusing on civic engagement in emergency management”. Seoul Institute (Seoul, South Korea), Seoul Research Report 14–06 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. Katz, D., Kahn, R.L.: Organizations and the system concept. Soc. Psychol. Organ. 1, 14–29 (1966)Google Scholar
  25. Kendra, J.M., Wachtendorf, T.: Elements of resilience after the world trade center disaster: reconstituting New York City’s Emergency Operations Centre. Disasters 27(1), 37–53 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Korean Meteorological Administration: The analysis report for typhoon effect on Korea. The National Typhoon Center (2013)Google Scholar
  27. Lindell, M.K., Prater, C.S., Perry, R.W.: Introduction to Emergency Management. Wiley, Hoboken (2007)Google Scholar
  28. McEntire, D.A., Dawson, G.: The intergovernmental context. In: Waugh, W.L., Tierney, K.J. (eds.) Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. International City/County Management Association, Washington, D.C (2007)Google Scholar
  29. McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., Cook, J.M.: Birds of a feather: homophily in social networks. Ann. Rev. Soc. 27, 415–444 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mechanic, D.: Sources of power of lower participants in complex organizations. Adm. Sci. Q. 7, 349–364 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moynihan, D.P.: The network governance of crisis response: case studies of incident command systems. J. Public Adm. Res. Theory 19(4), 895–915 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Owen, W.F.: Metaphor analysis of cohesiveness and small discussion groups. Small Group Behav. 16, 415–424 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paton, D., Millar, M., Johnston, D.: Community resilience to volcanic hazard consequences. Nat. Hazards 24, 157–169 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Patton, A.: Collaborative emergency management. In: Waugh, W.L., Tierney, K.J. (eds.) Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. International City/County Management Association, Washington, D.C (2007)Google Scholar
  35. Pfeffer, J., Salancik, G.R.: The design and management of externally controlled organizations. Pugh, DS Organization Theory, London (1978)Google Scholar
  36. Robinson, M.: Building close-knit collaborative communities in ECE. Pacific Oaks College, CA (2012)Google Scholar
  37. Soh, P.H., Mahmood, I., Mitchell, W.: Dynamic inducements in R&D investment:market signals and network locations. Acad. Manag. J. 47(6), 727–744 (2004)Google Scholar
  38. Sutcliffe, K.M., Vogus, T.J.: Organizing for resilience. In: Cameron, K.S., Dutton, J.E., Quinn, R.E. (eds.) Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline, pp. 94–110. Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  39. Vogus, T. J., Sutcliffe, K. M. : Organizational resilience: towards a theory and research agenda. In Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2007. ISIC. IEEE International Conference, pp. 3418–3422, IEEE (2007)Google Scholar
  40. Wasserman, S., Faust, K.: Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press, New York (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wenger, D.E.: Community response to disaster: functional and structural alterations. In: Quarantelli, E.L. (ed.) Disasters: Theory and research, pp. 18–47. Sage, Thousand Oaks (1978)Google Scholar
  42. Yoon, D. K. :Disaster Policies and Emergency Management in Korea. In Disaster and Development, pp. 149–164, (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public AdministrationUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.Askew School of Public Administration & PolicyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations