Employability and mental health in dismissed workers: the contribution of lay-off justice and participation in outplacement services

Abstract

The current study’s explored if and how psychosocial resources of employability contribute to mental health of dismissed workers. Degree of outplacement services use, perceived employability and perceived organizational lay-off justice were examined as mediators of the relation between personal employability and mental health. The research involved dismissed workers in the pharmaceutical industry, who joined programs of re-employment sponsored by companies. Structural equation results showed that the lay off workers with higher personal employability were less likely to have mental health deterioration. Furthermore psychosocial resources of personal employability directly increased perceptions of having job available alternatives and was indirectly associated with a higher degree of use of outplacement programs, but these variables didn’t mediate the relation with mental health. Lay-off justice had a direct positive impact on mental health, but it was not relate with employability. Our study contributes to understand some psychological processes that can affect the decision to utilise outplacement programs and offers suggestions for employability profiling.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Agarwal, R., Karahanna, E.: Time flies when you’re having fun: cognitive absorption and beliefs about information technology usage. MIS Q. 24–4, 665–694 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ajzen, I.: Nature and operation of attitudes. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52, 27–58 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ashford, S.J., Taylor, M.S.: Adaptation to work transitions: an integrative approach. In: Ferris, G.R., Rowland, K.M. (eds.) Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, vol. 8, pp. 1–39. CT: JAI Press, Greenwich (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bandura, A.: Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process 50, 248–287 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bandura, A.: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman, New York (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bandura, A.: Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52, 1–26 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bateman, T., Crant, J.: The proactive component of organizational behavior. J. Organ. Behav. 14, 103–118 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Berntson, E., Marklund, S.: The relationship between perceived employability and subsequent health. Work Stress 21, 279–292 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Berntson, E., Naswall, K., Sverke, M.: Investigating the relationship between employability and self-efficacy. A cross-lagged analysis. Eur. J. Work. Organ. Psychol. 17, 413–425 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Berntson, E., Sverke, M., Marklund, S.: Predicting perceived employability: human capital or labour market opportunities? Econ. Ind. Democr. 27, 223–244 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Brockner, J., Konovsky, M., Cooper-Schneider, R., Folger, R., Martin, C., Bies, R.J.: Interactive effects of procedural justice and outcome negativity on victims and survivors of job loss. Acad. Manag. J. 37–2, 397–409 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Chin, W.W.: The partial least squares approach to structural equation modelling. In: Marcoulides, G.A. (ed.) Modern Methods for Business Research, pp. 295–336. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Chin, W.W.: How to write up and report pls analyses. In: Esposito Vinzi, V., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., Wang, H. (eds.) Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Concepts, Methods and Applications, pp. 655–690. Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics, New York (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Chin, W.W., Gopal, A.: Adoption intention in gss: relative importance of beliefs. Database Adv. Inf. Syst. 26–2, 42–64 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chin, W.W., Marcolin, B.L., Newsted, P.N.: A partial least square latent variable modelling approach for measuring interaction effects: results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. Inf. Syst. Res. 14–2, 189–217 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Colquitt, A.J.: On the dimensionality of organizational justice: a construct validation of a measure. J. Appl. Psychol. 86–3, 386–400 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Colquitt, J.A., Conlon, D.E., Wesson, M.J., Porter, C.O.L.H., Ng, K.Y.: Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. J. Appl. Psychol. 86–3, 425–445 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Creed, P.A., Fallon, T., Hood, M.: The relationship between career adaptability, person and situation variables, and career concerns in young adults. J. Vocat. Behav. 74, 219–229 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cropanzano, R., Stein, J.H.: Organizational justice and behavioral ethics: promises and prospects. Bus. Ethics Q. 19–2, 193–233 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. De Cuyper, N., Bernhard-Oettel, C., Berntson, E., De Witte, H., Alarco, B.: Employability and employees’ well-being: mediation by job insecurity. Int. Rev. Appl. Psychol. 57, 488–509 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. De Cuyper, N., Van der Heijden, B.I.J.M., De Witte, H.: Associations between perceived employability, employee well-being, and its contribution to organizational success: a matter of psychological contracts? Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 22, 1486–1503 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Defillipi, R.J., Arthur, M.B.: The boundaryless career: a competency based perspective. J. Organ. Behav. 15–4, 307–324 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Duarte, P.A.O., Raposo, M.L.B.: A PLS model to study brand preference. In: Esposito Vinzi, V., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., Wang, H. (eds.) Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Concepts, Methods and Applications, pp. 449–486. Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics, New York (2010)

  24. Efron, B., Tibshirani, R.J.: An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman and Hall/CRC, New York (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Esposito Vinzi, V., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., Wang, H.: Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Concepts, Methods and Applications. pringer Handbooks of Computational Statistics, New York (2010)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  26. Folger, R., Cropanzano, R.: Fairness theory: justice as accountability. In: Greenberg, J., Cropanzano, R. (eds.) Advances in Organizational Justice, pp. 1–55. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Forrier, A., Sels, L., Stynen, D.D.: Career mobility at the intersection between agent and structure: a conceptual model. J. Occup. Organ. Psychol. 82, 739–759 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Fugate, M.: Employability in the new millennium. In: Greenhaus, J.H., Callanan, G.A. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Career Development. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A.J.: A dispositional approach to employability: development of a measure and test of implications for employee reactions to organizational change. J. Occup. Organ. Psychol. 81, 503–527 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Fugate, M., Kinicki, A.J., Ashforth, B.E.: Employability: a psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. J. Vocat. Behav. 65–1, 14–38 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Fuller, B., Marler, L.E.: Change driven by nature: a meta-analytic review of the proactive personality literature. J. Vocat. Behav. 75, 329–345 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Hall, D.T.: The protean career: a quarter-century journey. J. Vocat. Behav. 65, 1–13 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hall, D.T., Chandler, D.E.: Psychological success: when the career is a calling. J. Organ. Behav. 26, 155–176 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Hellgren, J., Sverke, M.: Does job insecurity lead to impaired well-being or vice versa? Estimation of cross-lagged effects using latent variable modelling. J. Organ. Behav. 24, 215–236 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., Sinkovics, R.R.: The use of partial least squares path modelling in international marketing. In: Sinkovics, R.R., Ghauri, P.N. (eds.) Advances in International Marketing, vol. 20. Emerald, Bingley (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Jöreskog, K.G., Sorbom, D.: lisrel 8.8 for Windows [computer software], Scientific Software, International (2006)

  37. Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., Thoresen, C.J.: Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83, 693–710 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Karsten, I.P., Moser, K.: Unemployment impairs mental health: meta-analyses. J. Vocat. Behav. 74, 264–282 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Koen, J., Klehe, U.C., Van Vianen, A.E.M., Zikic, J., Nauta, A.: Job-search strategies and reemployment quality. The impact of career adaptability. J. Vocat. Behav. 77, 126–139 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Lawson, K.J., Noblet, A.J., Rodwell, J.J.: Promoting employee wellbeing: the relevance of work characteristics and organizational justice. Health Promot. Int. 24–3, 223–233 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Lazarus, R., Folkman, S.: Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer, NewYork (1984)

    Google Scholar 

  42. Lohmöller, J.B.: Latent Variable Path Modelling with Partial Least Squares. Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg (1989)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  43. MacKenzie, S.B., Podsakoff, P.M., Jarvis, C.B.: The problem of measurement model misspecification in behavioural and organisational research and some recommended solutions. J. Appl. Psychol. 90–4, 710–730 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. McArdle, A., Waters, L., Briscoe, J.P., Hall, D.T.: Employability during unemployment: adaptability, career identity and human and social capital. J. Vocat. Behav. 71, 247–264 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. McKee-Ryan, F.M., Song, Z., Wanberg, C.R., Kinicki, A.J.: Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: a meta-analytic study. J. Appl. Psychol. 90, 53–76 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y., Podsakoff, N.P.: Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J. Appl. Psychol 88, 879–903 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Pugh, S.D., Skarlicki, D.P., Passell, B.S.: After the fall: layoff victims’ trust and cynicism in re-employment. J. Occup. Organ. Psychol. 76, 201–212 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Rothwell, A., Arnold, J.: Self-perceived employability: development and validation of a scale. Pers. Rev. 36, 23–41 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Savickas, M.L.: Career adaptability: an integrative construct for life-span, life-space theory. Career Dev. Q. 45, 247–259 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Savickas, M.L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J.-P., Duarte, M.E., Guichard, J., Soresi, S., Van Esbroeck, R., Van Vianen, A.E.M.: Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. J. Vocat. Behav. 75, 239–250 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Shaw, J.C., Wild, E., Colquitt, J.A.: To justify or excuse?: a meta-analytic review of the effects of explanations. J. Appl. Psychol. 88–3, 444–458 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Sibilia, L., Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M.: Italian adaptation of the general self-efficacy scale. Available at http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/$ast$health/italian.htm, (1995)

  53. Silla, I., De Cuyper, N., Gracia, F., Peiro, J.M., De Witte, H.: Job insecurity and well-being: moderation by employability. J. Happiness Stud. 10, 739–751 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Taris, T.W.: Unemployment and mental health: a longitudinal perspective. Int. J. Stress Manag. 9–1, 43–57 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Thijssen, J.G.L., Van der Heijden, B., Rocco, T.S.: Toward the employability -link model: current employment transition to future employment perspectives. Hum. Resour. Dev. Rev. 7, 165–183 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Thompson, J.A.: Proactive personality and job performance: a social capital perspective. J. Appl. Psychol 90, 1011–1017 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Van der Heijde, C.M., Van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.: A competence-based and multidimensional operationalization and measurement of employability. Hum. Resour. Manag. 45, 449–476 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Vinokur, A.D., Schul, Y.: The web of coping resources and pathways to reemployment following a job loss. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 7, 68–83 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Vinokur, A.D., Price, R.H., Caplan, R.D., Van Ryn, M., Curran, J.: The Job I preventive intervention for unemployed individuals: short- and long-term effects on reemployment and mental health. In: Murphy, L.R., Hurrell, JJJr, Sauter, S.L., Keita, G.P. (eds.) Job Stress Interventions, pp. 125–138. American Psychological Association, Washington DC (1995)

    Google Scholar 

  60. Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J.I., Fisher, J.: The role of social support in the process of work stress: a meta-analysis. J. Vocat. Behav. 54, 314–334 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Vuori, J., Vinokur, A.D.: Job-search preparedness as a mediator of the effects of the Tyohon job search intervention on re-employment and mental health. J. Organ. Behav. 26, 275–291 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Wanberg, C.R., Banas, J.T.: Predictors and outcomes of openness to changes in a reorganizing workplace. J. Appl. Psychol 85, 132–142 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Wanberg, C.R., Bunce, L.V.W., Gavin, M.R.: Perceived fairness of layoff among individuals who have been laid off: a longitudinal study. Pers. Psychol. 52, 59–84 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schröder, G.: Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: guidelines and empirical illustration. MIS Q. 33–1, 177–195 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  65. Wittekind, A., Raeder, S., Grote, G.: A longitudinal study of determinants of perceived employability. J. Organ. Behav. 31, 566–586 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Wold, H.: Soft modeling: the basic design and some extensions. In: Jöreskog, K.G., Wold, H. (eds.) Systems Under Indirect Observation: Causality, Structure, Prediction, vol. 2, pp. 1–54. North-Holland, Amsterdam (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  67. Wold, H.: Partial least squares. In: Kotz, S., Johnson, N.L. (eds.) Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 581–591. Wiley, New York (1985)

    Google Scholar 

  68. Zikic, M., Klehe, U.C.: Job loss as a blessing in disguise: the role of career exploration and career planning in predicting reemployment quality. J. Vocat. Behav. 69, 391–409 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elena Siletti.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

De Battisti, F., Gilardi, S., Siletti, E. et al. Employability and mental health in dismissed workers: the contribution of lay-off justice and participation in outplacement services. Qual Quant 48, 1305–1323 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-013-9836-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Lay-off
  • Employability
  • Perceived employability
  • Mental health
  • Outplacement services
  • Structural equation models