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The Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Figs (Ficus carica L.) Grown in the Black Sea Region

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Abstract

This study compared the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of three varieties of fig fruits (Ficus carica L) from the Eastern Black Sea region of Türkiye. Total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and phenolic compositions were analyzed in green, purple, and dark purple species. The mean TPC value was 42.10 ± 5.71 mg GAE/100 g FW, ranging from 35.98 to 47.30 mg GAE/100 g FW, and was highest in the dark purple species. The mean TFC value was 1.27 ± 0.93 mg QUE/100 FW g, ranging between 0.35 and 2.21 mg QUE/100 FW g, and was highest in the purple species. The samples’ total antioxidant capacity was measured based on ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), the values ranging from 151.98 to 372.97 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/100 g FW, with an average value of 239.64 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/100 g FW, being highest in the dark purple species. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the fruits was expressed as SC50 (mg/mL), and the values ranged from 10.04 to 42.42 mg/mL, being highest in the purple species. The phenolic composition was analyzed using HPLC-PDA according to the method in which 25 phenolic standards were used. Chlorogenic acid and t-cinnamic acid were the most common phenolic compounds, with rutin, chrysin, apigenin, and luteolin being detected at different amounts. In conclusion, the purple species contained the highest flavonoid content, was rich in apigenin, luteolin, and chrysin, and possessed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity.

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Çiğdem Bayrak: Formal analysis, writing the article; Ceren Birinci: HPLC studies; Mehmet Kemal: Formal analysis; Sevgi Kolaylı: Planning the study, writing and editing the article.

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Correspondence to Sevgi Kolayli.

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Bayrak, Ç., Birinci, C., Kemal, M. et al. The Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Figs (Ficus carica L.) Grown in the Black Sea Region. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 78, 539–545 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-023-01089-z

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