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Lepidium meyenii Walp (red maca) Supplementation Prevents Acrylamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Toxicity in Rats: Phytochemical Composition by UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS

Abstract

Lepidium meyenii Walp (red maca) is a high Andean plant cultivated since the Incas and has innumerable therapeutic properties. The study aims to identify its phytochemical composition using UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS, and evaluate its effects on acrylamide-induced oxidative stress. The lyophilized aqueous extract of red maca (LAqE-RM) was orally administered in doses of 1 and 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocytes, brain, and liver, as well as hepatic levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. Administration of acrylamide for 2 and 4 weeks significantly increased (p < 0.001) MDA levels in erythrocytes, brain, and liver. However, LAqE-RM prevented (p < 0.001) an increase in MDA levels in all tissues studied. Likewise, the groups treated with LAqE-RM presented significantly (p < 0.001) lower levels of ALT and AST compared to the control. Treatment with LAqE-RM ameliorated the acrylamide-induced oxidative stress by reducing MDA levels in erythrocytes, brain, and liver and by lowering liver levels of ALT and AST in a dose-dependent manner. Twenty-five secondary metabolites were identified and characterized from LAqE-RM based on UHPLC mass spectrophotometry. These include carbolines, alkamides, fatty acids, and macamides, which are probably involved in their antioxidant protective role.

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Funding

This work was supported by the Canon Minero project (R.R. N° 0262–2021/UNT) of the National University of Trujillo (UNT), and Fondecyt-Chile 1200610 to Javier Palacios.

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Conceptualization: Roberto O. Ybañez-Julca, Javier Palacios; Formal analysis and investigation: Daniel Asunción-Alvarez, Ricardo Diego Duarte Galhardo de Albuquerque, Ivan Quispe-Díaz. Writing—original draft preparation: Daniel Asunción-Alvarez, Roberto O. Ybañez-Julca; Writing—review and editing: Daniel Asunción-Alvarez, Javier Palacios, Chukwuemeka R. Nwokocha. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Roberto O. Ybañez-Julca.

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The experimental protocols were approved by the Ethics Committee for animal research of the Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (Res.Cons. Univ. No. 0361–2018/UNT). All institutional and international guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals (NIH, 2013) were followed.

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Ybañez-Julca, R.O., Palacios, J., Asunción-Alvarez, D. et al. Lepidium meyenii Walp (red maca) Supplementation Prevents Acrylamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Toxicity in Rats: Phytochemical Composition by UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 77, 460–466 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-022-01000-2

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Keywords

  • Acrylamide
  • Lepidium meyenii
  • Lipid peroxidation
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Oxidative stress
  • UHPLC–ESI–MS/MS