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In vitro Bioaccessibility of Proteins, Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Amaranthus viridis


The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition, mineral content and report the effect of gastrointestinal digestion on the proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of morphological parts of Amaranthus viridis (AV). The macronutrients found in the greatest quantity were proteins (leave, inflorescence and seeds) and fiber (roots and stem). The main minerals were calcium, potassium, iron and zinc. All the plant parts showed total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) compounds that were correlated with antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP); the leaves and inflorescence presented the greatest potential. The antioxidant compounds from the leaves, inflorescence and roots decreased after static in vitro digestion, while the TPC and TFC of the digested seeds increased by more than 55%. Approximately 90% of the protein content was bioaccessible. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, the bioaccessibility of proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leave, inflorescence, seeds, roots and stem from AV were reported. Taking into consideration the excellent nutritional properties, the morphological parts of the plant can be potentially explored as a source of protein, fiber, minerals and antioxidant compounds.

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The authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.


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We are thankful to the Paraná Reference Center for Agroecology of Paraná (CPRA-PR) for donating the plants. This work was supported by Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel—Brazil (CAPES) for the financial support and the master scholarship awarded to A.D. Silva (grant number 888823830003/2019-01) and postdoctoral fellowships awarded to S. Ávila (grant number 88887371865/2019-00).

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Correspondence to Alisson David Silva.

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Silva, A.D., Ávila, S., Küster, R.T. et al. In vitro Bioaccessibility of Proteins, Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Amaranthus viridis. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2021).

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  • Amaranthus
  • Nutrient
  • Minerals
  • Digestibility
  • Antioxidant compounds
  • Morphological parts