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Physicochemical Composition and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds of Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Fruit During Ontogeny


Mulberry fruit is well recognized as one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds. We investigated the physicochemical composition and characterized the bioactive compounds during different ripening stages of mulberry (Morus indica) fruit and evaluated their anti-quorum sensing activity on Chromobacterium violaceum. The proximate components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids were found to be high in the ripe fruit compared to unripe and mid-ripe fruit. The ripe fruit contained higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (336.05 and 282.55 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), respectively). Epicatechin and resveratrol were the major polyphenols detected in the fruit with the range 5.13–19.46 and 4.07–14.45 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Chlorogenic acid and myricetin were predominant in the unripe and mid-ripe fruit (7.14 and 1.84 mg/100 g FW, respectively). The fruit was found to be an excellent source of anti-diabetic compound 1-deoxynojirimycin. The highest content of 1-deoxynojirimycin was present in the mid-ripe fruit, with a content of 2.91 mg/100 g FW. Furthermore, fruit extracts exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum by effectively inhibiting violacein production. Ripe fruit extracts showed the highest activity of 76.30% at 1 mg/mL and thus, could be used as a potent anti-quorum sensing agent. The results could be promising in the selection of appropriate developmental stages for M. indica fruit commercial exploitation in the food formulations rich in potential health components.

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Data is available upon request.


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The authors are thankful to the SERB-DST (SERB/MOFPI/0012/2014), Government of India, New Delhi for their financial assistance. We greatly acknowledge the Director, CSIR-CFTRI, for kind support.

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Correspondence to Nandini P. Shetty.

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Shreelakshmi, S.V., Nazareth, M.S., Kumar, S.S. et al. Physicochemical Composition and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds of Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Fruit During Ontogeny. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 76, 304–310 (2021).

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  • Morus indica
  • 1-Deoxynojirimycin
  • Resveratrol
  • Phenolic acids
  • Flavonoids
  • HPLC