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Comparison of Polyphenol-Enriched Tomato Juice and Standard Tomato Juice for Cardiovascular Benefits in Subjects with Stage 1 Hypertension: a Randomized Controlled Study

Abstract

There is a growing body of evidence that tomato consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, through antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects. We compared the effects of polyphenol-enriched and standard tomato juice on parameters of lipid and oxidative status and blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. The experimental group (n = 13) was supplemented with 200 g of tomato fruit juice enriched with 1 g of ethanolic extract of whole tomato fruit, while the control group (n = 13) was consuming 200 g tomato fruit juice. Before and after the treatment, blood samples were collected, and blood pressure was measured. Markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense: paraoxonase (PON1), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and C reactive protein (CRP) were determined in serum. Prothrombin time (PT) was measured in the whole blood samples. Parameters of lipid status, as well as susceptibility to copper-induced oxidation of LDL particles in vitro were also determined. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C only in the control group at the end of the study. No significant differences were observed in the remainder of the assessed parameters along the study. In conclusion, tomato juice may have favorable effects on lipid metabolism, but polyphenol fortification does not constitute additional beneficial cardiovascular effects.

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Abbreviations

ANCOVA:

Analysis of covariance

CRP:

C-reactive protein

CVD:

Cardiovascular diseases

DBP:

Diastolic blood pressure

GAE:

Gallic acid equivalents

HDL-C:

High-density- cholesterol

INR:

International normalized ratio

LDL-C:

Low-density cholesterol

PAB:

Pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance

PON1:

Paraoxonase

PT:

Prothrombin time

SBP:

Systolic blood pressure

TAS:

Total antioxidant status

TBARS:

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

TC:

Total cholesterol

TGC:

Triglycerides

TOS:

Total oxidant status

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Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Project No. III 46001 and 175035) and the Charles University Project Progress Q25.

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Correspondence to Danica Michaličková.

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Michaličková, D., Belović, M., Ilić, N. et al. Comparison of Polyphenol-Enriched Tomato Juice and Standard Tomato Juice for Cardiovascular Benefits in Subjects with Stage 1 Hypertension: a Randomized Controlled Study. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 74, 122–127 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-019-0714-5

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Keywords

  • Human intervention studies
  • Polyphenols
  • Lipids
  • Cardiovascular risk