Application of Tamarind Waste Extracts to Improve the Antioxidant Properties of Tamarind Nectars

Abstract

Tamarind fruits are consumed worldwide and their seeds have an underexploited potential. We assessed the effect of the addition of a freeze-dried aqueous of extract tamarind seed (FAE) at three concentration levels (0.3, 1.15 and 2%) on the antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and ORAC) and concentrations of total phenolic compounds in tamarind pulp. Conditions used to prepare the aqueous extracts were established using multivariate optimization. Moreover, nectars prepared from pulps combined with FAE were subjected to sensory tests. Tamarind fruits from three geographic regions in Brazil (Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Bahia) that were harvested in 2013 and 2014 were used in the study. Generally, the freeze-dried aqueous extracts increased the concentrations of antioxidants in the pulp. The results revealed a positive correlation between the FAE concentration in the pulp and the antioxidant capacity of all samples, particularly samples from Bahia and Minas Gerais, which presented an increase of up to 1,942% in the ABTS method when 2% FAE was incorporated into the pulp, from approximately 40.1 to 209.1 mMTrolox/gdw and 13.4 to 143.4 mMTrolox/gdw, respectively. Sensory tests indicated the satisfactory acceptance and non-distinction between nectar samples to which FAE was or was not added when the FAE concentration was less than 2.3gFAE/L, regardless of the geographic origin of the samples.

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Abbreviations

FAE:

Freeze-dried tamarind seed aqueous extract

DPPH:

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)]

FRAP:

Ferric reducing antioxidant power

ORAC:

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity

DL:

Low density lipoprotein

TPC:

Total phenolic compounds

CCD:

Central composite design

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

S/L:

Solid-to-liquid ratio

BA:

Bahia state

MG:

Minas Gerais state

SP:

São Paulo state

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank FAPESP (process number: 2012/06806-4) for the financial support.

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Correspondence to Helena Teixeira Godoy.

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Souza, D.S., Souza, J.D.R.P., Coutinho, J.P. et al. Application of Tamarind Waste Extracts to Improve the Antioxidant Properties of Tamarind Nectars. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 75, 70–75 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-019-00778-y

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Keywords

  • Aqueous extraction
  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Functional beverage
  • Juice
  • PCA (principal component analysis)
  • Sensory analysis
  • Tamarindus indica L.