Skip to main content
Log in

Biscuits Enriched with Dietary Fibre Powder Obtained from the Water-Extraction Residue of Maize Milling by-Product

Plant Foods for Human Nutrition Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Cite this article


A maize milling by-product was defatted by aqueous extraction and the residue was dehydrated, comminuted and sieved to obtain two powders differing in particle size and having a very high fibre content. The powders were then incorporated into the structure of short-dough biscuit, at two wheat flour substitution levels (10 and 20%), aiming at the development of a nutritionally improved product. Their impact on biscuit dough properties and the quality and sensory characteristics of the final products was evaluated. As it was revealed, powders’ addition altered dough consistency and alveograph indices mainly due to interactions between wheat flour proteins and polysaccharides and enhanced the nutritional profile of the biscuits by inducing a 4- to 6-fold increase of their fibre content. Additionally, it influenced only to a limited extent the degree of some of the final product characteristics, e.g., protein and fat content, spread ratio, breaking strength, depending both on the level of incorporation and the particle size of the residue. On the whole, products’ sensory quality was not negatively influenced, suggesting that it is possible to use both powders for the fortification with fibre of biscuits and possibly other bakery products.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Institutional subscriptions

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others



Maize germ


Maize germ solid residue


(coarse with a particle size <0.40 mm)


(fine with a particle size <0.16 mm)


  1. Khalid KH, Ohm J-B, Simsek S (2017) Whole wheat bread: effect of bran fractions on dough and end-product quality. J Cereal Sci 78:48–56.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Gómez M, Moraleja A, Oliete B, Ruiz E, Caballero PA (2010) Effect of fibre size on the quality of fibre-enriched layer cakes. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43:33–38.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Reyes-Pérez F, Salazar-García MG, Romero-Baranzini AL, Islas-Rubio AR, Ramírez-Wong B (2013) Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 68:52–56.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Fuller S, Beck E, Salman H, Tapsell L (2016) New horizons for the study of dietary fiber and health: a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 71:1–12.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Mofasser Hossain AKM, Brennan MA, Mason SL, Guo X, Brennan CS (2017) The combined effect of blackcurrant powder and wholemeal flours to improve health promoting properties of cookies. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 72:280–287.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Veronese N, Solmi M, Caruso MG, Giannelli G, Osella AR, Evangelou E, Maggi S, Fontana L, Stubbs B, Tzoulaki I (2018) Dietary fiber and health outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Am J Clin Nutr 107:436–444.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Nikiforidis CV, Kiosseoglou V (2009) Aqueous extraction of oil bodies from maize germ (Zea mays) and characterization of the resulting natural oil-in-water emulsion. J Agric Food Chem 57:5591–5596.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Mantzouridou FT, Naziri E, Kyriakidou A, Paraskevopoulou A, Tsimidou MZ, Kiosseoglou V (2019) Oil bodies from dry maize germ as an effective replacer of cow milk fat globules in yogurt-like product formulation. LWT-Food Sci Technol 105:48–56.

  9. Naziri E, Koupantsis T, Mantzouridou FT, Paraskevopoulou A, Tsimidou MZ, Kiosseoglou V (2017) Influence of thermal treatment on the stability of vegetable “milk” obtained by ultrafiltration of aqueous oil body extracts from various sources. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 119:1600362.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Matsakidou A, Biliaderis CG, Kiosseoglou V (2013) Preparation and characterization of composite sodium caseinate edible films incorporating naturally emulsified oil bodies. Food Hydrocoll 30:232–240.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Evlogimenou A, Paraskevopoulou A, Kiosseoglou V (2017) Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini). J Sci Food Agric 97:215–221.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Manley D (2001) Biscuit, cracker and cookie recipes for the food industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  13. Laguna L, Salvador A, Sanz T, Fiszman SM (2011) Performance of a resistant starch rich ingredient in the baking and eating quality of short-dough biscuits. LWT - Food Sci Technol 44:737–746.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. ICC (1992) ICC standard method number 121. Method for Using of the Chopin Alveograph. International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  15. AOAC (2012) Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 19th edition, Washington D.C.

  16. AACC International Approved Methods, Method 32–07.01 Soluble, Insoluble, and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products

  17. Becker FS, Damiani C, de Melo AA, Borges PR, Boas EV (2014) Incorporation of Buriti endocarp flour in gluten-free whole cookies as potential source of dietary fiber. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 69:344–350.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Tyagi SK, Manikantan MR, Oberoi HS, Kaur G (2007) Effect of mustard flour incorporation on nutritional, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits. J Food Eng 80:1043–1050.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Lai H-M, Lin T-C (2006) Bakery products: science and technology. In: Hui YH (ed) Bakery products: science and technology, 1st edn. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, pp 3–65

  20. Gomez M, Ronda F, Blanco CA, Caballero PA, Apesteguia A (2003) Effect of dietary fibre on dough rheology and bread quality. Eur Food Res Technol 216:51–56.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Wang J, Rosell CM, de Barber CB (2002) Effect of the addition of different fibres on wheat dough performance and bread quality. Food Chem 79:221–226.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Jones RW, Erlander SR (1967) Interaction between wheat proteins and dextrans. Cereal Chem 44:447–456

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Sudha ML, Vetrimani R, Leelavathi K (2007) Influence of fibre from different cereals on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on biscuit quality. Food Chem 100:1365–1370.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Ajila CM, Leelavathi K, Prasada Rao UJS (2008) Improvement of dietary fiber content and antioxidant properties in soft dough biscuits with the incorporation of mango peel powder. J Cereal Sci 48:319–326.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Anis Jauharah MZ, Wan Rosli WI, Robert SD (2014) Physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit and muffin incorporated with young corn powder. Sains Malaysiana 43:45–52

    Google Scholar 

  26. Gupta M, Amarinder Singh Bawa AS, Abu-Ghannama N (2011) Effect of barley flour and freeze–thaw cycles on textural nutritional and functional properties of cookies. Food Bioprod Process 89:520–527.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Sowbhagya HB, Mahadevamma S, Indrani D, Srinivas P (2011) Physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of celery seed spent residue and influence of its addition on quality of biscuits. J Texture Stud 42:369–376.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Baltsavias A, Jurgens A, van Vliet T (1999) Rheological properties of short doughs at large deformation. J Cereal Sci 29:33–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Chevallier S, Della Valle G, Colonna P, Broyart B, Trystram G (2002) Structural and chemical modifications of short dough during baking. J Cereal Sci 35:1–10.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Zucco F, Borsuk Y, Arntfield SD (2011) Physical and nutritional evaluation of wheat cookies supplemented with pulse flours of different particle sizes. LWT - Food Sci Technol 44:2070–2076.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Dayakar Rao B, Anis M, Kalpana K, Sunooj KV, Patil JV, Ganesh T (2016) Influence of milling methods and particle size on hydration properties of sorghum flour and quality of sorghum biscuits. LWT - Food Sci Technol 67:8–13.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors appreciate the economic support by Greece and the European Social Fund (NSRF 2007–2013), in the context of the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” and of the action ARISTEIA I/820-OILBODIESEXPLOIT (FP7). The help of Dr. Maria Irakli (Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter”, Thermi, Greece) for colour analysis and Chalkidiki Flour Mills S.A. (Thessaloniki) for alveographic analysis is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adamantini Paraskevopoulou.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Paraskevopoulou, A., Rizou, T. & Kiosseoglou, V. Biscuits Enriched with Dietary Fibre Powder Obtained from the Water-Extraction Residue of Maize Milling by-Product. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 74, 391–398 (2019).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: