Analysis of Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxyl Fatty Acid in Selected Plant Food

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Preclinical studies on recently discovered classes of lipids – fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA) have revealed their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing potential. The FAHFA levels are significantly decreased in insulin-resistant individuals, their application exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and restoring the glucose-insulin homeostasis. The aim of our research was to analyze the overall FAHFA composition in a common diet, as only a partial FAHFA composition has been revealed so far (only the PAHSA subclass was analyzed in a few foods). A new approach to the FAHFAs analysis includes nano-LC and post-column modifier followed by negative ion mass spectrometry, in order to obtain maximum sensitivity. Analysis of different foods – oat (whole grain, coarse flakes and fine flakes), apple, clementine, lemon, strawberry, blueberry, mango, kiwi, avocado, pineapple, banana, onion, garlic, cherry tomato, carrot, parsley root, pepper and radish – exhibited wide inter-food variation in the FAHFA profiles. Sixteen analyzed FAHFAs (palmitic, oleic, palmitoleic and stearic hydroxy-esters) showed microgram to low nanogram levels (0.165 ng/g – 32 μg/g FW), with the highest abundancy in oat, clementine, garlic and pineapple. Stearic acid hydroxy stearic acid (SAHSA) was the most abundant FAHFA, especially in the food with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects. In contrary, the PAHSA - previously proven to have the strongest antihyperglycemic and insulin-sensitizing effects, was not present in some foods (radish, avocado, mango, lemon, cherry tomato, kiwi). Our study proves the importance of overall FAHFA analysis in food (especially in a functional food), because of their potential metabolic benefits and possible future incorporation in special diets.

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Fig. 1

Abbreviations

FAHFA:

Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids

OAHOA:

Oleic acid hydroxy oleic acid

OAHPA:

Oleic acid hydroxy palmitic acid

OAHPO :

Oleic acid hxdroxy palmitoleic acid

OAHSA :

Oleic acid hydroxy stearic acid

PAHPA:

Palmitic acid hydroxy palmitic acid

PAHPO:

Palmitic acid hydroxy palmitoleic acid

PAHOA :

Palmitic acid hydroxy oleic acid

PAHSA:

Palmitic acid hydroxy stearic acid

POHOA :

Palmitoleic acid hydroxy oleic acid

POHPA:

Palmitoleic acid hydroxy palmitic acid

POHPO:

Palmitoleic acid hydroxy palmitoleic acid

POHSA:

Palmitoleic acid hydroxy stearic acid

SAHOA:

Stearic acid hydroxy oleic acid

SAHPA:

Stearic acid hydroxy palmitic acid

SAHPO:

Stearic acid hydroxy palmitoleic acid

SAHSA:

Stearic acid hydroxy stearic acid

MRM:

Multiple reaction monitoring

RSD:

Relative standard deviation

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

HSD:

Honestly significant difference

DHAHLA:

DocosaHexaenoic acid hydroxy linoleic acid

GLUT4:

Glucose transporter type 4

UPLC:

Ultra performance liquid chromatography

MRM:

Multiple reaction monitoring

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Acknowledgements

Authors thank dr. sc. Jasmina Ranilovic, PhD from Podravka for providing oat samples and HrZZ childARTHRITISevolve 4771 project for financing SPE columns.

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Correspondence to Mario Cindrić.

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Liberati-Čizmek, AM., Biluš, M., Brkić, A.L. et al. Analysis of Fatty Acid Esters of Hydroxyl Fatty Acid in Selected Plant Food. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 74, 235–240 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-019-00728-8

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Keywords

  • Bioactive food compounds
  • Fatty acid esters of hydroxyl fatty acids
  • FAHFA composition
  • Food analysis
  • Negative ion mass spectrometry