Chemical Characterization and Release of Polyphenols from Pecan Nut Shell [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] in Zein Microparticles for Bioactive Applications
The pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] is a natural source of polyphenols with antioxidant properties. In this study, the encapsulation of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of pecan nut shell were evaluated for the release of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential in order to explore food applications using zein as encapsulating agent. The extracts showed high contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins and high antioxidant activity. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins were 9-fold higher in hydroalcoholic extracts. The LC-DAD analysis showed that catechins were the major phenolic compounds in samples, with epigallocatechin levels up to 138.62 mg mL−1. Zein microparticles loaded with aqueous extract released 2.3 times more phenolic compounds than the hydroalcoholic extracts and the DSC thermograms showed that extracts of pecan nut shell remained thermally stable up to 240 °C. The zein microcapsules obtained in this study were efficiently encapsulated and represent an interesting additive due its high antioxidant capacity, physicochemical characteristics and morphology. The use of zein microparticles combined with natural extracts constitute a step forward in the improvement of current technology for delivering phenolic compounds with applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals.
KeywordsBioactive compounds Microencapsulation Pecan nut, Phenolic profile, Zein
Differential scanning calorimetry
Generally recognized as safe
Scanning electron microscopy
Total phenolic content
Authors are grateful to Divinut Ind. de Nozes Ltda (Cachoeirado Sul – RS) for providing pecan shells and CAPES for awarding scholarship for Itamara Kureck. Authors thank the students: Cleonice Gonçalves da Rosa, Gislaine Kuminek, Lindomar Lerin, Leno Soares and Glaucia Medeiros for their assistance with analyses. This work was financially supported by CNPq – process number 480407/2013-4.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare none.
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