Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 161–165 | Cite as

Effects of Whole Grain Wheat Bread on Visceral Fat Obesity in Japanese Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

  • Yosuke Kikuchi
  • Satomi Nozaki
  • Miki Makita
  • Shoji Yokozuka
  • Shin-ichi Fukudome
  • Takashi Yanagisawa
  • Seiichiro AoeEmail author
Original Paper


Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m2. Subjects were randomly assigned WW (WW group) or RW diets (RW group) for 12 weeks. Blood samples and computed tomography scans were obtained every 6th week. The WW group showed decrease (−4 cm2) in visceral fat area (VFA) (p < 0.05), whereas the RW group showed no significant changes. These time-dependent changes were significantly different between the groups. WW diet led to significant and safe reductions in VFA in subjects with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2. WW diet may contribute to preventing visceral fat obesity.


Visceral fat Dietary fiber Whole grain wheat Metabolic syndrome 



body mass index


glycated hemoglobin


high-density lipoprotein


low-density lipoprotein


standard error


visceral fat area



The authors are grateful to CPCC Co., Ltd. for planning and analytical support. The study was supported by a Research Project on Development of Agricultural Products and Food with Health-promoting Benefits awarded by NARO, Japan (Grant No, A-2). Authors KY, NS, MM, YS, and FS are employees of Nisshin Seifun Group Inc.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The other authors YT, and AS declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11130_2018_666_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 35.6 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yosuke Kikuchi
    • 1
  • Satomi Nozaki
    • 1
  • Miki Makita
    • 1
  • Shoji Yokozuka
    • 2
  • Shin-ichi Fukudome
    • 1
  • Takashi Yanagisawa
    • 3
  • Seiichiro Aoe
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Basic Science, Research and Development, Quality Assurance DivisionNisshin Seifun Group Inc.SaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Research and Development, Quality Assurance DivisionNisshin Seifun Group Inc.TokyoJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Crop Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of Home Economics, Department of Food ScienceOtsuma Women’s UniversityTokyoJapan

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