Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 73, Issue 2, pp 146–153 | Cite as

Betaxanthin-Rich Extract from Cactus Pear Fruits as Yellow Water-Soluble Colorant with Potential Application in Foods

  • José A. Fernández-López
  • María J. Roca
  • José M. Angosto
  • José M. Obón
Original Paper
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit juice is a source of betaxanthin pigments which can be used as a natural yellow food colorant. The HPLC chromatographic pigment pattern corresponding to the betaxanthin-rich extract revealed the presence of four betaxanthins, of which indicaxanthin (proline-betaxanthin) accounts for around 85%. A betaxanthin-rich water-soluble food colorant from cactus pears fruits was produced by spray-drying microencapsulation using maltodextrin as a wall material. The resulting powder was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and its apparent color was analyzed by spectrometry. The stability of the microcapsules was examined at +20, +4 and −20 °C in the dark during six months of storage. The degradation of betaxanthins was delayed by microencapsulation and their colorant stability increased at lower temperatures. The potential application of the colorant microcapsules was successfully assessed in two food model systems: a yogurt and a soft-drink. Both foods presented an attractive pale yellow color. Pigment retention and color parameters were investigated during storage under controlled conditions. Slight changes in the pigment retention, in both model systems, pointed to excellent preservation in the dark, even after 28 days at 4 °C. However, the presence of light contributed to betaxanthin deterioration. Spray-drying microencapsulation succeeds in reducing volumen of the pigment extract and can be easy in storage and delivery of the powders. It is proved to be a suitable process that can be recommended for stabilizing betaxanthins from cactus pears to be used as water-soluble natural colorants in foods.

Keywords

Natural food colorant Betaxanthins Opuntia ficus-indica Microencapsulation Spray-drying Food model systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research is part of the QUIMYTEC R&D group. Authors greatly acknowledge the financial support provided by Fundación Séneca (project 08702PI08).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

11130_2018_664_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (340 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 339 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Moβhammer MR, Rohe M, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2007) Stability of yellow-orange cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica [L.] Mill. cv. ‘Gialla’) betalains as affected by the juice matrix and selected food additives. Eur Food Res Technol 225:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Otálora MC, Carriazo JG, Iturriaga L, Nazareno MA, Osorio C (2015) Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray-drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents. Food Chem 187:174–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wrolstad RE, Culver CA (2012) Alternatives to those artificial FD&C food colorants. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 3:59–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stintzing FC, Carle R (2004) Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food and in human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Technol 15:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rodríguez-Amaya DB (2016) Natural food pigments and colorants. Curr Opin Food Sci 7:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stintzing FC, Carle R (2007) Betalains–emerging prospects for food scientists. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:514–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saénz C, Tapia S, Chávez J, Robert P (2009) Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). Food Chem 114:616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Obón JM, Castellar MR, Alacid M, Fernández-López JA (2009) Production of a red–purple food colorant from Opuntia stricta fruits by spray drying and its application in food model systems. J Food Eng 90:471–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    González-Palomares S, Estarrón-Espinosa M, Gómez-Leyva JF, Andrade-González I (2009) Effect of the temperature on the spray drying of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:62–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Delgado-Vargas F, Jiménez-Aparicio A, Paredes-López O (2000) Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins and betalains. Characteristics, biosynthesis, processing and stability. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 40:173–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fernández-López JA, Almela L (2001) Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the characterization of the betalain pigments in prickly pear fruits. J Chromatogr A 913:415–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khan MI, Giridhar P (2015) Plant betalains: chemistry and biochemistry. Phytochemistry 117:267–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Piatelli M (1976) Betalains. In: Goodwin TW (ed) Chemistry and biochemistry of plant pigments. Academic Press, New York, pp 560–596Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gliszczyńska-Świgło A, Szymusiak H, Malinowska P (2006) Betanin, the main pigment of red beet: molecular origin of its exceptionally high free radical-scavenging activity. Food Addit Contam 23:1079–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gandía-Herrero F, Jiménez-Atiénzar M, Cabanes J, García-Carmona F, Escribano J (2010) Stabilization of the bioactive pigment of Opuntia fruits through maltodextrin encapsulation. J Agric Food Chem 58:10646–10652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    AOAC (2016) Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 20th edn. AOAC International, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fernández-López JA, Castellar R, Obón JM, Almela L (2007) Monitoring by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry the impact of pH and temperature on the pigment pattern of cactus pear fruit extracts. J Chromatogr Sci 45:120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Obón JM, Castellar MR, Cascales JA, Fernández-López JA (2005) Assessment of the TEAC method for determining the antioxidant capacity of synthetic red food colorants. Food Res Int 38:843–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dyrby M, Westergaard N, Stapelfeldt H (2001) Light and heat sensitivity of red cabbage extract in soft drink model systems. Food Chem 72:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol 28:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gurrieri S, Miceli L, Lanza CM, Tomaselli F, Bonomo RP, Rizzarelli E (2000) Chemical characterization of Sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) and perspectives for the storage of its juice. J Agric Food Chem 48:5424–5431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feugang JM, Konarski P, Zou D, Stintzing FC, Zou C (2006) Nutritional and medicinal use of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) cladodes and fruits. Front Biosci 11:2574–2589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chávez-Santoscoy RA, Gutiérrez-Uribe JA, Serna-Saldívar SO (2009) Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Díaz-Medina EM, Rodríguez-Rodríguez EM, Díaz-Romero C (2007) Chemical characterization of Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. Food Chem 103:38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Butera D, Tesoriere L, Di Gaudio F, Bongiorno A, Allegra M, Pintaudi AM, Livrea MA (2002) Antioxidant activities of Sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem 50:6895–6901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castellanos-Santiago E, Yahia EM (2008) Identification and quantification of betalains from the fruits of 10 Mexican prickly pear cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 56:5758–5764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kugler F, Graneis S, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2007) Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae. Z Naturforsch C 62:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stintzing FC, Herbach KM, Mosshammer MR, Carle R, Yi W, Sellappan S, Akoh CC, Bunch R, Felker P (2005) Color, betalain pattern, and antioxidant properties of cactus pear (Opuntia spp.) clones. J Agric Food Chem 53:442–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Castellar R, Obón JM, Alacid M, Fernández-López JA (2003) Color properties and stability of betacyanins from Opuntia fruits. J Agric Food Chem 51:2772–2776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Robert P, Torres V, García P, Vergara C, Sáenz C (2015) The encapsulation of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) pulp by using polysaccharide-proteins as encapsulating agents. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60:1039–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Giménez PJ, Fernández-López J, Angosto JM, Obón JM (2015) Comparative thermal degradation patterns of natural yellow colorants used in foods. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 70:380–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Martínez JA, Melgosa M, Pérez MM, Hita E, Negueruela AI (2001) Note. Visual and instrumental color evaluation in red wines. Food Sci Technol Int 7:439–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    de Rosso VV, Mercadante AZ (2007) Evaluation of colour and stability of anthocyanins from tropical fruits in an isotonic soft drink system. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 8:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • José A. Fernández-López
    • 1
  • María J. Roca
    • 1
  • José M. Angosto
    • 1
  • José M. Obón
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of Cartagena (UPCT)CartagenaSpain

Personalised recommendations