Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes, nine kabuli from Mexico and 9 desi from other countries, were investigated for their phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity (AA). Phenolics in methanol extracts (ME) were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS), whereas the AA was measured as Trolox equivalents (TE) by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods. Twenty phenolic compounds were identified in the ME and their levels showed a great variability among the chickpea genotypes. Phenolic acids and flavonoids were the most abundant compounds in kabuli and desi genotypes, respectively. The AA values (μmol TE/ 100 g dw) by ABTS (278–2417), DPPH (52–1650), and FRAP (41–1181) were mainly associated with the content of sinapic acid hexoside, gallic acid, myricetin, quercetin, catechin, and isorhamnetin, suggesting they are the main compounds responsible for the AA. The sum of the AA obtained for standards of these compounds evaluated at the concentration found in the extracts accounted for 34.3, 69.8, and 47.0% of the AA in the extract by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP, respectively. In the AA by DPPH, most of the mixtures of these compounds resulted in synergistic interactions. Three desi genotypes with black seeds (ICC 4418, ICC 6306, and ICC 3761) showed the highest AA and flavonoids content, whereas the most promising kabuli genotypes were Surutato 77, Bco. Sin. 92, and Blanoro that showed the highest values of phenolic acids. These genotypes represent good sources of antioxidants for the improvement of nutraceutical properties in chickpea.
Cicer arietinum L. Phenolics Antioxidant activity UPLC-DAD-MS
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This research was funded by Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (PROFAPI). MFQS received a scholarship from CONACYT-Mexico. We thank Milagros Ramírez and Víctor Valenzuela (INIFAP) for the field work. We also thank Nancy Salazar-Salas (UAS) for the technical assistance and Cuauhtemoc Reyes-Moreno (UAS) for the analysis of the data and the critical revision of the manuscript.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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