Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 72, Issue 3, pp 236–242 | Cite as

Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products

  • Nha K. Huynh
  • Ha V. H. NguyenEmail author
Original Paper


Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89–17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60–1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16–1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p < 0.05). On the other hand, alcohol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae from 1 to 5 weeks reduced 37–58% of total oxalate and 39–59% of soluble oxalate contents. Prolonged fermentation also demonstrated better reduction of oxalate contents. Meanwhile, lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus acidophilus had no effects on total and soluble oxalate contents in carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.


Carambola Oxalate Lactobacillus acidophilus Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pectin 



Analysis of variance


Colony-forming unit


High-performance liquid chromatography


Lactic acid bacteria


Fresh weight



The authors wish to thank MSc. Yen Dang for her technical assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Technology Department, Biotechnology SchoolInternational University, Vietnam National University, HCMCHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

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