Optimization of Physical Conditions for the Aqueous Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Applying a Box-Behnken Design

Abstract

Since ancient times, ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes. This rhizome possesses several chemical constituents; most of them present antioxidant capacity due mainly to the presence of phenolic compounds. Thus, the physical conditions for the optimal extraction of antioxidant components of ginger were investigated by applying a Box-Behnken experimental design. Extracts of ginger were prepared using water as solvent in a conventional solid–liquid extraction. The analyzed variables were time (5, 15 and 25 min), temperature (20, 55 and 90 °C) and sample concentration (2, 6 and 10 %). The antioxidant activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power assay while total phenolics were measured by Folin & Ciocalteu’s method. The suggested experimental design allowed the acquisition of aqueous extracts of ginger with diverse antioxidant activity (100–555 mg Trolox/100 g, 147–1237 mg Fe2+/100 g and 50–332 mg gallic acid/100 g). Temperature was the determining factor in the extraction of components with antioxidant activity, regardless of time and sample quantity. The optimal physical conditions that allowed the highest antioxidant activity were: 90 °C, 15 min and 2 % of the sample. The correlation value between the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the content of total phenolics was R2 = 0.83. The experimental design applied allowed the determination of the physical conditions under which ginger aqueous extracts liberate compounds with antioxidant activity. Most of them are of the phenolic type as it was demonstrated through the correlation established between different methods used to measure antioxidant capacity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    [Blackberry Organic Products in the Northern Mountain Range of Puebla Inc.]

Abbreviations

AA:

antioxidant activity

BHA:

2-tert-butyl-hydroxyanisol

BHT:

2-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene

DPPH*:

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

FRAP:

ferric reducing antioxidant power method

GA:

gallic acid

TBHQ:

tert-butyl-hydroquinone

TPTZ:

4,6-tripryridyl-s-triazine

References

  1. 1.

    Moure A, Cruz JM, Franco D, Domínguez JM, Sineiro J, Domínguez H, Núñez MJ, Parajó JC (2001) Natural antioxidant from residual sources. Food Chem 72:145–171

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Carocho M, Ferreira CFRI (2013) A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives. Food Chem Toxicol 51:15–25

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Finkel T, Holbrook NJ (2000) Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408:239–247

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    El-Ghorab AH, Nauman M, Anjum FM, Hussain S, Nadeem M (2010) A comparative study on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and cumin (Cuminum cyminum). J Agric Food Chem 58(14):8231–8237

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Nile SH, Park SW (2015) Chromatographic analysis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of ginger extracts and its reference compounds. Ind Crop Prod 70:238–244

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Jeena K, Liju VB, Kuttan R (2013) Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from ginger. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 57(1):51–62

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Shukla Y, Singh M (2007) Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 45(5):683–690

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ali BH, Blunden G, Tamira OM, Nemmar A (2008) Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research. Food Chem Toxicol 46:409–420

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Prasad S, Tyagi AK (2015) Ginger and its constituents: role in prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterol Res Pract 1–15

  10. 10.

    Chen IN, Chang CC, Ng CC, Wang C-Y, Shyu YT, Chang T-L (2008) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Zingiberaceae plants in Taiwan. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63:15–20

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Liu Y, Roy SS, Nebie RHC, Zhang Y, Nair MG (2013) Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 68:72–77

  12. 12.

    Lu DL, Li XZ, Dai F, Kang YF, Li Y, Ma MM, Ren XR, Du GW, Jin XL, Zhou B (2014) Influence of side chain structure changes on antioxidant potency of the [6]-gingerol related compounds. Food Chem 165:191–197

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gümüşaya ÖA, Borazanb AA, Ercalc N, Demirkold O (2015) Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger. Food Chem 173:156–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Stoilova I, Krastanov A, Stoyanova A, Denev P, Gargova S (2007) Antioxidant activity of a ginger extracts (Zingiber officinale). Food Chem 102:764–770

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Kaur C, Kapoor VH (2002) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int J Food Sci Technol 37:153–161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Huda-Faujan N, Noriham A, Norrakiah AS, Babji AS (2009) Antioxidant activity of plants methanolic extracts containing phenolic compounds. Afr J Biotechnol 8:484–489

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Cai Y, Luob Q, Sunc M, Corkea H (2004) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci 74:2157–2184

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H (2005) Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. J Agric Food Chem 53(20):7749–7759

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Hinneburg I, Dorman DHJ, Hiltunen R (2006) Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chem 97:122–129

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Chan EWC, Lim YY, Wong LF, Lianto FS, Wong SK, Lim KK, Joe CE, Lim TY (2008) Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition properties of leaves and rhizomes of ginger species. Food Chem 109:477–483

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZE, Rahmat A (2010) Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Molecules 15:4324–4333

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Chohan M, Forster-Wilkins G, Opara EI (2008) Determination of the antioxidant capacity of culinary herbs subjected to various cooking and storage processes using the ABTS*+ radical cation assay. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63:47–52

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Crosby K, Cisneros-Zevallos L, Byrne DH (2006) Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts. J Food Compos Anal 19:669–675

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL (2005) The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53:1841–1856

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239(1):70–76

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

For the support to CONACYT.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elizabeth Contreras-López.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

ESM 1

(DOCX 17 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ramírez-Godínez, J., Jaimez-Ordaz, J., Castañeda-Ovando, A. et al. Optimization of Physical Conditions for the Aqueous Extraction of Antioxidant Compounds from Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Applying a Box-Behnken Design. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 72, 34–40 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-016-0582-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Zingiber officinale
  • Box-Behnken
  • DPPH*
  • FRAP
  • Total phenolics