Skip to main content


Log in

Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others



Average daily gain


Body weight


Cellulase-modified tea dietary fiber


Cardiovascular disease


Dietary fiber


Glutathione peroxidase


High-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol


Model control




Micronized tea dietary fiber


Superoxide dismutase


Normal control


Total cholesterol


Tea dietary fiber




  1. Elleuch M, Bedigian D, Roiseux O, Besbes S, Blecker C, Attia H (2011) Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: a review. Food Chem 124:411–421

  2. Ruiz-Roso B, Quintela JC, Fuente E, de la Haya J, Pérez-Olleros L (2010) Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:50–56

  3. Pérez-Jiménez J, Serrano J, Tabernero M, Arranz S, Díaz-Rubio ME, García-Diz L, Goñi I, Saura-Calixto F (2008) Effects of grape antioxidant dietary fiber in cardiovascular disease risk factors. Nutr 24:646–653

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Zhang N, Huang C, Ou S (2011) In vitro binding capacities of three dietary fibers and their mixture for four toxic elements, cholesterol, and bile acid. J Hazard Mater 186:236–239

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Anderson JW, Jones AE, Riddell-Mason S (1994) Ten different dietary fibers have significantly different effects on serum and liver lipids of cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr 124:78–83

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Chau CF, Huang YL, Lin CY (2004) Investigation of the cholesterol-lowering action of insoluble fibre derived from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng. Food Chem 87:361–366

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Chou SY, Chien PJ, Chau CF (2008) Particle size reduction effectively enhances the cholesterol-lowering activities of carrot insoluble fiber and cellulose. J Agric Food Chem 56:10994–10998

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Jimenez-Escrig A, Sanchez-Muniz FJ (2000) Dietary fibre from edible seaweeds: chemical structure, physicochemical properties and effects on cholesterol metabolism. Nutr Res 20:585–598

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Zacherl C, Eisner P, Engel K (2011) In vitro model to correlate viscosity and bile acid-binding capacity of digested water-soluble and insoluble dietary fibres. Food Chem 126:423–428

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Li T, Zhong JZ, Wan J, Liu CM, Le BY, Liu W, Fu GM (2013) Effects of micronized okara dietary fiber on cecal microbiota, serum cholesterol and lipid levels in BALB/c mice. Int J Food Sci Nutr 64:968–973

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Hu YB, Wang Z, Xu SY (2008) Corn bran dietary fibre modified by xylanase improves the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipids metabolism in rats. Food Chem 109:499–505

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Sinija VR, Mishra HN (2008) Green tea: health benefits. J Nutr Environ Med 17:232–242

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Yang XP, Cui XN (2013) Adsorption characteristics of Pb (II) on alkali treated tea residue. Water Resour Ind 3:1–10

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Barbana C, Boucher AC, Boye JI (2011) In vitro binding of bile salts by lentil flours, lentil protein concentrates and lentil protein hydrolysates. Food Res Int 44:174–180

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Abulnaja KO, El Rabey HA (2015) The efficiency of barley (Hordeum vulgare) bran in ameliorating blood and treating fatty heart and liver of male rats. Evid-Based Compl Alt 2015:1–-13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Chau CF, Wang YT, Wen YL (2007) Different micronization methods significantly improve the functionality of carrot insoluble fibre. Food Chem 100:1402–1408

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Sangnark A, Noomhorm A (2004) Chemical, physical and baking properties of dietary fiber prepared from rice straw. Food Res Int 37:66–74

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Caprez A, Arrigoni E, Amado R, Neukom H (1986) Influence of different types of thermal treatment on chemical composition and physical properties of wheat bran. J Cereal Sci 4:233–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ramos S, Moulay L, Granado-Serrano AB, Vilanova O, Muguerza B, Goya L, Bravo L (2008) Hypolipidemic effect in cholesterol-fed rats of a soluble fiber-rich product obtained from cocoa husks. J Agric Food Chem 56:6985–6993

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Sharma M, Kawatra A (1995) Effect of dietary fibre from cereal brans and legume seedcoats on serum lipids in rats. Plant Food Hum Nutr 47:287–292

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Hsu PK, Chien PJ, Chen CH, Chau CF (2006) Carrot insoluble fiber-rich fraction lowers lipid and cholesterol absorption in hamsters. LWT-Food Sci Technol 39:337–342

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Saura-Calixto F (1998) Antioxidant dietary fiber product: a new concept and a potential food ingredient. J Agric Food Chem 46:4303–4306

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Vinson JA, Dabbagh YA (1998) Effect of green and black tea supplementation on lipids, lipid oxidation and fibrinogen in the hamster: mechanisms for the epidemiological benefits of tea drinking. FEBS Lett 433:44–46

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Lin YL, Cheng CY, Lin YP, Lau YW, Juan IM, Lin JK (1998) Hypolipidemic effect of green tea leaves through induction of antioxidant and phase II enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione s-transferase in rats. J Agric Food Chem 46:1893–1899

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Pérez-Jiménez J, Serrano J, Tabernero M, Arranz S, Díaz-Rubio E, García-Diz L, Goñi I, Saura-Calixto F (2009) Bioavailability of phenolic antioxidants associated with dietary fiber: plasma antioxidant capacity after acute and long-term intake in humans. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:102–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (grant no. 2013PY091) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (grant no. 2011CDB136).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiaoping Yang.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

This article does not contain any conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Guo, W., Shu, Y. & Yang, X. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 71, 145–150 (2016).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: