Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp 454–462 | Cite as

Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols

  • Giovanna GiovinazzoEmail author
  • Francesco Grieco
Review Article


Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine “functional properties” that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.


Grape Wine Bioactive molecules Functional food 



Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase


Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase


4-Hydroxy-Cinnamoyl CoA Ligase


Chalcone Syntase


Chalcone Isomerase


Stilbene Synthase


Isoflavon Hydroxylase


Isoflavon Reductase


Flavanone 3-Hydroxylase


Flavonoid-3′ 5′-Hydroxylase


Dihydroflavonol Reductase


Anthocyanidins Synthase


Anthocyanidins Reductase






Reactive Oxygen Species



This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research - Project S.I.Mi.S.A. - PON02_00186_3417512/1 and Project Pro.Ali.Fun - PON02_00186_2937475.

Compliancse with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All the authors do not have any competing financial or other interests in relation to the presented work.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari-CNR, Unit of LecceLecceItaly

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