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Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review

Abstract

Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models.

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Abbreviations

DPPH:

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

FRAP:

Ferric reducing antioxidant power

HDL:

High-density lipoprotein

LDL:

Low-density lipoprotein

MQA:

Methodological quality assessment

QI:

Quality index

RQ:

Respiratory quotient

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a RIRDC Postgraduate Scholarship (PRJ-009683) and a GRDC Grains Industry Research Scholarship (GRS10698).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

Compliance with Ethics

The procedures performed in seven of the included animal studies were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution at which the studies were conducted. Eleven of the included studies did not explicitly state that the experimental procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution that the study was performed at.

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Correspondence to Thomas George Simnadis.

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Simnadis, T.G., Tapsell, L.C. & Beck, E.J. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 70, 238–249 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-015-0506-5

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Keywords

  • Quinoa
  • Animal
  • Weight gain
  • Lipids
  • Antioxidant effects
  • Saponins