Filtered Molasses Concentrate from Sugar Cane: Natural Functional Ingredient Effective in Lowering the Glycaemic Index and Insulin Response of High Carbohydrate Foods
- 443 Downloads
An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5–20 %, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations.
Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages.
KeywordsFiltered molasses Glycaemic index Reduced glycaemic response Reduced insulin response Carbohydrate metabolism
Catechin equivalent (non-specific measure of phenolic activity)
Filtered molasses concentrate
Glycemic index (measurement of 2 h postprandial glycemic response relative to pure glucose)
Insulinemic index or response (measurement of 2 hour postprandial insulin response relative to glucose)
Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (measure of antioxidant activity)
Picomole per litre
The authors would like to thank Fiona Atkinson of the Sydney University Glycaemic Index Research Service for extensive GI testing, analysis and reporting; Ria Setyabudi (formerly Horizon Science) for sample preparation and analysis, Gunter Kuhnle of the University of Reading for polyphenol determination, and Plant and Food Research New Zealand for in vitro digestive enzyme studies.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
The authors declare this research study involved human subjects. This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origins in the Declaration of Helsinki. The experimental procedures used in this study were in accordance with international standards for conducting ethical research with humans and were approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Sydney University (approval number 08-2009/12029, valid August 13, 2009 – August 31, 2012). This study was performed between March 2011 and March 2012.
- 2.Larsen TM, Dalskov S-M, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AFH, Martinez A, Handijieva-Darlenska T, Kunešová M, Pihlsgård M, Stender S, Holst C, Saris WHM, Astrup A, for the Diogenes Project (2010) Diets with high or low protein content and glycaemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med 363:2102–2113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.Thompson LU, Yoon JH, Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL (1984) Relationship between polyphenol intake and blood glucose response of normal and diabetic individuals. Am J Clin Nutr 39:745–751Google Scholar
- 8.Pikilidou MI, Lasaridis AN, Sarafidis PA, Befani CD, Koliakos GG, Tziolas IM, Kazakos KA, Yovos JG, Nilsson PM (2009) Insulin sensitivity increase after calcium supplementation and change in intraplatelet calcium and sodium-hydrogen exchange in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 26:211–219Google Scholar
- 11.Liljeberg HGM, Lönner CH, Björck IME (1995) Sourdough fermentation or addition or organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. J Nutr 125:1503–1511Google Scholar
- 16.Rothwell JA, Perez-Jimenez J, Neveu V, Medina-Remón A, M'Hiri N, García Lobato P, Manach C, Knox C, Eisner R, Wishart KS, Scalbert A (2013) Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content. Database, 2013, bat070Google Scholar
- 21.Eid HM, Martineau LC, Saleem A, Muhammad A, Vallerand D, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Nistor L, Afshar A, Arnason JT, Haddad PS (2010) Stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and enhancement of basal glucose uptake in muscle cells by quercetin and quercetin glycosides, active principles of the antidiabetic medicinal plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Mol Nutr Food Res 54:991–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Montagut G, Onnockx S, Vaqué M, Bladé C, Blay M, Fernández-Larrea J, Pujadas G, Salvadó MJ, Arola L, Pirson I, Ardévol A, Pinent M (2010) Oligomers of grape-seed procyanidin extract activate the insulin receptor and key targets of the insulin signaling pathway differently from insulin. J Nutr Biochem 21:476–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M (2005) Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Chem Technol Metall 40:255–260Google Scholar
- 30.Nickavar B, Amin G (2010) Bioassay-guided separation of an alpha-amylase inhibitor anthocyanin from Vaccinium arctostaphylos berries. Z Naturforsch 65:567–570Google Scholar