Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 372–378 | Cite as

Bioactive Capacity, Sensory Properties, and Nutritional Analysis of a Shelf Stable Protein-rich Functional Ingredient with Concentrated Fruit and Vegetable Phytoactives

  • Mary H. Grace
  • Gad G. Yousef
  • Debora Esposito
  • Ilya Raskin
  • Mary Ann LilaEmail author
Original Paper


Well-known health-protective phytochemicals from muscadine grape and kale were stably complexed with food grade protein (soy or hemp protein isolates) to create biofortified food ingredients for use in a variety of convenient, portable food formulations. The bioactive (anti-inflammatory) potential, sensory attributes and proximates of the prepared formulations were evaluated in this study. Anti-inflammatory properties of the protein-phytoactive ingredient particles were contributed by the polyphenolic content (muscadine-protein) or the combination of polyphenol, carotenoid, and glucosinolate content (kale-protein aggregates). Phytoactive compounds from the fortified matrices suppressed at least two biomarkers of inflammation; most notable with the expression of chronic pro-inflammatory genes IL-6 and Mcp1. Sensory analysis suggested both sweet and savory functional food applications for the biofortified ingredients. Proximate analyses determined that fortification of the soy protein isolate (SPI) with muscadine or kale bioactives resulted in elevated dietary fibers, total carbohydrates, and free sugars, but did not increase calories/100 g dry matrix compared to unfortified SPI. Overall protein content in the aggregate matrices was about 37 % less (muscadine-SPI, kale-SPI and kale- HP50) or 17.6 % less (muscadine-HP50) on a weight basis, likely due to solubility of some proteins during preparation and partial displacement of some protein mass by the fruit and vegetable phytoactive constituents.


Muscadine Kale Protein isolate Inflammatory biomarkers 



Hemp protein


Soy protein isolate


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary H. Grace
    • 1
  • Gad G. Yousef
    • 1
  • Debora Esposito
    • 1
  • Ilya Raskin
    • 2
  • Mary Ann Lila
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Plants for Human Health InstituteNorth Carolina State UniversityKannapolisUSA
  2. 2.School of Environmental and Biological SciencesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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