Variation and Correlation of Properties in Different Grades of Maple Syrup

Abstract

Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products.

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Abbreviations

DPPH:

2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl

E360-F460:

360 nm excitation and 460 nm emission

EPA:

Environment protection agency

GAE:

Gallic acid equivalent

IMSI:

International Maple Syrup Institute

OMAFRA:

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food

TE:

Trolox equivalent

TSS:

Total soluble solids

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Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the Gosling Research Institute for Plant Preservation, University of Guelph, ON, Canada for financial support.

Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Praveen K. Saxena.

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Singh, A.S., Jones, A.M.P. & Saxena, P.K. Variation and Correlation of Properties in Different Grades of Maple Syrup. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 69, 50–56 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-013-0401-x

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Keywords

  • Maple syrup
  • Syrup grades
  • Total phenols
  • Antioxidant potential
  • Mineral content
  • Autofluorescence (E360-F460)