Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 68, Issue 3, pp 293–298 | Cite as

Extracts from Black Carrot Tissue Culture as Potent Anticancer Agents

  • Canan Sevimli-Gur
  • Burcu Cetin
  • Seref Akay
  • Sultan Gulce-Iz
  • Ozlem Yesil-CeliktasEmail author
Original Paper


Black carrots contain anthocyanins possessing enhanced physiological activities. Explants of young black carrot shoots were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus initiation and were transferred to new MS medium supplemented with four different combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin. Subsequently, the lyophilized calli and black carrot harvested from fields were subjected to ultrasound extraction with ethanol at a ratio of 1:15 (w:v). Obtained extracts were applied to various human cancer cell lines including MCF-7 SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 (human breast adenocarcinomas), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma), Neuro 2A (Musmusculus neuroblastoma) cancer cell lines and VERO (African green monkey kidney) normal cell line by MTT assay. The highest cytotoxic activity was achieved against Neuro-2A cell lines exhibiting viability of 38–46 % at 6.25 μg/ml concentration for all calli and natural extracts. However, a significantly high IC50 value of 170.13 μg/ml was attained in normal cell line VERO indicating that its natural counterpart is an ideal candidate for treatment of brain cancer without causing negative effects to normal healthy cells.


Black carrot Plant cell culture Callus Anticarcinogen Cytotoxicity Antioxidant 



Access to the facilities of Animal Cell Culture and Supercritical Fluid Technology Laboratories of Bioengineering Department at Ege University is highly appreciated.

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare not to have any conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Sreelatha S, Padma PR (2009) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:303–311Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Snyder SM, Low RM, Stocks JC, Eggett DL, Parker TL (2012) Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubusidaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 67:358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kammerer D, Carle R, Schieber A (2003) Detection of peonidin and pelargonidin glycosides in black carrots (Daucuscarota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:2407–2412Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Khandare V, Walia S, Singh M, Kaur C (2011) Black carrot (Daucuscarota ssp. sativus) juice: processing effects on antioxidant composition and color. Food Bioprod Process 89:482–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yu L, Haley S, Perret J, Harris M, Wilson J, Qian M (2002) Free radical scavenging properties of wheat extracts. J Agric Food Chem 50:1619–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yu L, Zhou K, Parry J (2005) Antioxidant properties of cold-pressed black caraway, carrot, cranberry and hemp seed oils. Food Chem 91:723–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Netzel M, Netzel G, Kammerer DR, Schieber A, Carle R, Simons L, Bitsch I, Bitsch R, Konczak I (2007) Cancer cell antiproliferation activity and metabolism of black carrot anthocyanins. Innov Food Sci Emerg 8:365–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kirca A, Ozkan M, Cemeroglu B (2006) Stability of black carrot anthocyanins in various fruit juices and nectars. Food Chem 97:598–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun T, Simon PW, Tanumihardjo SA (2009) Antioxidant phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of biofortified carrots (Daucuscarota L.) of various colors. J Agric Food Chem 57:4142–4147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arscott SA, Tanumihardjo SA (2010) Carrots of many colors provide basic nutrition and bioavailable phytochemicals acting as a functional food. Compr Rev Food Sci F 9:223–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montilla EC, Arzaba MR, Hillebrand S, Winterhalter P (2011) Anthocyanin composition of black carrot (Daucuscarota ssp. Sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) cultivars antonina, beta sweet, deep purple, and purple haze. J Agric Food Chem 59:3385–3390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Metzger BT, Barnes DM, Reed JD (2008) Purple Carrot (Daucuscarota L.) Polyacetylenes decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory proteins in macrophage and endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem 56:3554–3560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ravindra PV, Narayan MS (2003) Antioxidant activity of the anthocyanin from carrot (Daucuscarota) callus culture. Int J Food SciNutr 54(5):349–355Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akay S, Alpak I, Yesil-Celiktas O (2011) Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutusunedo L.) fruits: an optimization study. J Sep Sci 34:1925–1931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yesil-Celiktas O, Ganzera M, Akgun IH, Sevimli C, Korkmaz KS, Bedir E (2009) Determination of polyphenolic constituents and biological activities of bark extracts from different Pinus species. J Sci Food Agric 89:1339–1345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thompson EW, Paik S, Brünner N, Sommers CL, Zugmaier G, Clarke R, Shima TB, Torri J, Donahue S, Lippman ME (1992) Association of increased basement membrane invasiveness with absence of estrogen receptor and expression of vimentin in human breast cancer cell lines. J Cell Physiol 150(3):534–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jing P, Bomser JA, Schwartz SJ, He J, Magnuson BA, Giusti MM (2008) Structure-function relationships of anthocyanins from various anthocyanin-rich extracts on the inhibition of colon cancer cell growth. J Agric Food Chem 56:9391–9398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim SM, Chung MJ, Ha TJ, Choi HN, Jang SJ, Kim SO, Chun MH, Do SI, Choo YK, Park YI (2012) Neuroprotective effects of black soybean anthocyanins via inactivation of ASK1-JNK/p38 pathways and mobilization of cellular sialic acids. Life Sci 90:874–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moneruzzaman Kandaker M, Nasrulhaq Boyce A, Osman N, Sharif Hossain A (2012) Physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple as affected by growth regulator application. The Sci World J 1–13. doi: 10.1100/2012/728613
  20. 20.
    Estrada-Zúñiga ME, Arano-Varela H, Buendía-González L, Orozco-Villafuerte J (2012) Fatty acids, phenols content, and antioxidant activity in Ibervilleasonorae callus cultures. Rev Mex Ing Quim 11(1):89–96, ISSN: 1665–2738Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Canan Sevimli-Gur
    • 1
  • Burcu Cetin
    • 2
  • Seref Akay
    • 3
  • Sultan Gulce-Iz
    • 3
  • Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Science and Art FacultyKocaeli UniversityKocaeliTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Science and Art FacultyDumlupinar UniversityKutahyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of EngineeringEge UniversityBornovaTurkey

Personalised recommendations