Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 156–161 | Cite as

Phenolic Compounds from Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

  • Grace Gosmann
  • Adriana Gregory Barlette
  • Tabitha Dhamer
  • Demétrius P. Arçari
  • Juliana Carvalho Santos
  • Eloá Ramalho de Camargo
  • Simone Acedo
  • Alessandra Gambero
  • Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto
  • Marcelo Lima Ribeiro
Original Paper

Abstract

Leaves of Ilex paraguariensis are used to prepare a tea known as maté which is a common beverage in several South American countries. The ethanol extract was fractionated to identify the compounds responsible for the anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Extracts of both fresh and dried maté leaves were subjected to column chromatography using molecular permeation to obtain the saponin (20 % yields) and the polyphenol extracts (40 % yields) from the fresh and dried leaves. The phenolic content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Also, maté extracts (50 μg/ml to 1,000 μg/ml) did not display citotoxicity using MTT. The polyphenol extract from the dried leaves was the most effective (50 μg/ml) in the inhibition of triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and rutin (100 μg/ml) likely accounted for a large portion of this activity. Additionally, maté extracts had a modulatory effect on the expression of genes related to the adipogenesis as PPARγ2, leptin, TNF-α and C/EBPα.

Keywords

Ilex paraguariensis Maté Adipogenesis Polyphenols Saponin MTT 

Abbreviations

DMEM

Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium

IBMX

3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

FE

Fresh leaf ethanol extract

DE

Dried leaf ethanol extract

Supplementary material

11130_2012_289_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (47 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 47 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Bracesco N, Sanchez AG, Contreras V, Menini T, Gugliucci A (2011) Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: Minireview. J Ethnopharmacol 136:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heck AI, Mejia EG (2007) Yerba mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis): A comprehensive review on chemistry, health implications, and technological considerations. J Food Sci 72:138–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matsumoto RLT, Bastos DHM, Mendonça S, Nunes VS, Bartchewsky W, Ribeiro ML (2009) Effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) ingestion on mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and total antioxidant status in healthy young women. J Agric Food Chem 57:1775–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miranda DD, Arçari DM, Pedrazzoli J Jr, Carvalho PO, Cerutti SM, Bastos DHM, Ribeiro ML (2008) Protective effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on H2O2-induced DNA damage and repair in mice. Mutagenesis 23:261–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arçari DP, Bartchewsky W, Dos Santos TW, Oliveira K, Funck A, Pedrazzoli J, De Souza MFF, Saad MJ, Bastos DHM, Gambero A, Carvalho PO, Ribeiro ML (2009) Antiobesity effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-fat diet–induced obese mice. Obesity 17:2127–2133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arçari DP, Bartchewsky W, Dos Santos TW, Oliveira K, Oliveira C, Gotardo E, Pedrazzoli J, Gambero A, Ferraz LFC, Carvalho PO, Ribeiro ML (2011) Anti-inflammatory effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) ameliorate insulin resistance in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 335(2):110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rössner S (2002) Obesity: The disease of the twenty–first century. Int J Obes 26(4):S2–S4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haslam DW, James WP (2005) Obesity. Lancet 366:1197–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, Nakayama O, Makishima Y, Shimomura I (2004) Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest 114:1752–1761Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahima RS, Flier JS (2000) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinol Metab 11(8):327–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ailhaud G, Hauner H (2004) Development of white adipose tissue. In: Bray AGB (ed) Handbook of obesity: Etiology and pathophysiology. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gosmann G, Guillaume D, Taketa ATC, Schenkel EP (1995) Triterpenoid saponins from Ilex paraguariensis. J Nat Prod 58:438–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stahl E (1969) Thin-layer chromatography, a laboratory handbook, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Silva FA, Pavei C, Ortega GG, Lima EM, Diniz DGA, Moreira JCF, Bassani VL (2007) Validation of an LC method for polyphenol assay in extractive solutions from Ilex paraguariensis (Mate). J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 30:3119–3131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beara IN, Lesjak MM, Jovin ED, Balog KJ, Anackov GT, Orcić DZ, Mimica-Dukić NM (2009) Plantain (Plantago L.) species as novel sources of flavonoid antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem 57(19):9268–9273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moon HS, Chung CS, Lee HG, Kim TG, Choi YJ, Cho CS (2007) Inhibitory effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells. Obesity 15(11):2571–2582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mosmann T (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 65:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xin H, Bernal A, Amato FA, Pinhasov A, Kauffman J, Brenneman DE, Derian CK, Andrade-Gordon P, Plata-Salaman CR, Ilyin SE (2004) High-throughput Si-RNa-based functional target validation. J Biomol Screen 9:286–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2-(−Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 25:402–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chandra S, De Mejia EG (2004) Polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and quinine reductase activity of an aqueous extract of Ardisia compressa in comparison to mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and green (Camellia sinensis) teas. J Agric Food Chem 52:3583–3589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Trayhurn P (2007) Adipocyte biology. Obes Rev 8(1):41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park T, Kim Y (2011) Phytochemicals as potential agents for prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases. In: Atta-ur-Rahman, Choudhary MI (eds) Anti-obesity drug discovery and development. Bentham, Dubai, pp 150–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    González-Espinosa de los Monteros LA, Ramón-Gallegos E, Torres-Torres N, Mora-Escobedo R (2011) Effect of germinated soybean protein hydrolysates on adipogenesis and adipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 66:355–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Konieczny SF, Emerson CP (1984) 5-azacytidine induction of stable mesodermal stem cell lineages from 10 T1/2 cells: Evidence for regulatory genes controlling determination. Cell 38:791–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niwano Y, Beppu F, Shimada T, Kyan R, Yasura K, Tamaki M, Nishino M, Midorikawa Y, Hamada H (2009) Extensive screening for plant foodstuffs in Okinawa, Japan with anti-obese activity on adipocytes in vitro. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64:6–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tamori Y, Masugi J, Nishino N, Kasuga M (2002) Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in maintenance of the characteristics of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetes 51:2045–2055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fajas L, Fruchart JC, Auwerx J (1998) Transcriptional control of adipogenesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 10:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Evans D, Aberle J, Wendt D, Wolf A, Beisiegel U, Mann WA (2001) A polymorphism, L162V, in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) gene is associated with lower body mass index in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Mol Med 79:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fox KE, Fankell DM, Erickson PF, Majka SM, Crossno JT Jr, Klemm DJ (2006) Depletion of cAMP-response element-binding protein/ATF1 inhibits adipogenic conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ectopically expressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) alpha, C/EBP beta, or PPAR gamma 2. J Biol Chem 281:40341–40353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hsu CL, Yen GC (2007) Effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Agric Food Chem 55:8404–8410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bulló M, García-Lorda P, Peinado-Onsurbe J, Hernández M, Del Castillo D, Argilés JM, Salas-Salvadó J (2002) TNF-alpha expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese and morbid obese females: Relationship to adipocyte LPL activity and leptin synthesis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26:652–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kern PA, Ranganathan S, Li C, Wood L, Ranganathan G (2001) Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:745–751Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Okada Y, Okada M, Sagesaka Y (2010) Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65(8):225–232Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cho AS, Jeon SM, Kim MJ, Yeo J, Kl S, Choi MS, Lee MK (2010) Chlorogenic acid exhibits anti-obesity property and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice. Food Chem Toxicol 48:937–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grace Gosmann
    • 1
  • Adriana Gregory Barlette
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tabitha Dhamer
    • 1
  • Demétrius P. Arçari
    • 2
  • Juliana Carvalho Santos
    • 2
  • Eloá Ramalho de Camargo
    • 2
  • Simone Acedo
    • 2
  • Alessandra Gambero
    • 2
  • Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto
    • 1
  • Marcelo Lima Ribeiro
    • 2
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de FarmáciaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)Porto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e GastroenterologiaUniversidade São FranciscoBragança PaulistaBrazil

Personalised recommendations