Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 290–298 | Cite as

Wakame and Nori in Restructured Meats Included in Cholesterol-enriched Diets Affect the Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expressions and Activities in Wistar Rats

  • Adriana Schultz Moreira
  • Laura González-Torres
  • Raul Olivero-David
  • Sara Bastida
  • Juana Benedi
  • Francisco J. Sánchez-MunizEmail author


The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.


Nori Wakame Functional meats Antioxidant enzymes Glutathione Gene-expression 



The present study was supported by the Spanish projects AGL2005-07204-C02-01/ALI, AGL-2008 04892-C03-02, and Consolider-Ingenio 2010 # CSD2007-00016. We acknowledge the predoctoral fellowship of Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain to Adriana Schultz, that of Fundación Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho (FUNDAYACUCHO) from Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to Raul Olivero-David and the foreign Postgrado fellowship granted by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) of México to Laura González-Torres.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriana Schultz Moreira
    • 1
  • Laura González-Torres
    • 1
  • Raul Olivero-David
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sara Bastida
    • 1
  • Juana Benedi
    • 3
  • Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición), Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Toxicología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad de AlcaláMadridSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

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