Skip to main content

Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Raw, Dry-roasted, and Oil-roasted US Peanuts of Commercial Importance

An Erratum to this article was published on 02 July 2010

Abstract

Raw, skinless peanut kernels from US commercial production lines were dry- and oil-roasted according to standard industrial practices. Eighty percent (v/v) methanolic extracts from the peanut cultivars were prepared and characterized by RP-HPLC: five predominant compounds were found comprising free p-coumaric acid and potential p-coumaric acid derivatives, as elucidated by DAD-UV spectra with comparisons to those of commercial standards. A Spanish high-oleic peanut possessed the greatest naturally-occurring level of p-coumaric acid and its derivatives, followed by a high-oleic Runner, a normal Runner, and a Virginia peanut. Upon thermal processing, p-coumaric acid was liberated at the expense of its derivatives according to the relationship: oil roasting > dry roasting > raw. A high-oleic Runner exhibited the greatest increase (∼785%) in free p-coumaric acid levels after oil roasting. For many of the samples from the 2007 crop, processing increased the TPC and antioxidant capacities in the order of raw < dry roast < oil roast, but results were cultivar dependent. Oil-roasted peanuts were more effective at scavenging O2 - than their dry-roasted counterparts, as determined by a photochemiluminescence assay. Overall findings indicate that although thermal processing altered the composition of peanut kernel antioxidants, TPC values and radical-scavenging activities are preserved. Depending on peanut type, cultivar, and harvest date, enhanced antioxidant capacities can result.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Abbreviations

AAPH:

2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride

ABTS:

2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

ABTS●+ :

2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation

BHA:

butylated hydroxyanisole

EDTA:

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EP:

edible peanut

EQ:

equivalents

FL:

fluorescein (3′6′-dihydroxy-spiro[isobenzofuran-1[3H],9′[9H]-xanthen]-3-one)

MUFA:

monounsaturated fatty acids

O2 - :

superoxide radical anion

ORACFL :

oxygen radical absorbance capacity (fluorescein probe)

PCLACW :

Photochem® water soluble antioxidant capacity

PUFA:

polyunsaturated fatty acids

RO 2 :

peroxyl radical

TBHQ:

tert-butylhydroquinone

TEAC:

Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity

TPC:

total phenolics content

References

  1. 1.

    USDA (2009) United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. Nutrients in 100-g raw peanuts (Arachis hypogea), all types. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/ (accessed January 23, 2010)

  2. 2.

    Mercer LC, Wynne JC, Young CT (1990) Inheritance of fatty acid content in peanut oil. Peanut Sci 17:17–21

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Braddock JC, Sims CA, O’Keefe SF (1995) Flavor and oxidative stability of roasted high oleic acid peanuts. J Food Sci 60:489–493

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kris-Etherton PM, Yu-Poth S, Sabaté J, Ratcliffe HE, Zhao G, Etherton TD (1999) Nuts and their bioactive constituents: effects on serum lipids and other factors that affect disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr 70:504S–511S

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Liu S, Willett WC, Hu FB (2002) Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA 288:2554–2560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    O’Byrne DJ, Knauft DA, Shireman RB (1997) Low fat–monounsaturated rich diets containing high-oleic peanuts improve serum lipoprotein profiles. Lipids 32:687–695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Isanga J, Zhang G-N (2007) Biologically active components and nutraceuticals in peanuts and related products: Review. Food Rev Int 23:123–140

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kris-Etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E, Sabaté J (2008) The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: Multiple potential mechanisms. J Nutr 138:1746S–1751S

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Talcott ST, Passeretti S, Duncan CE, Gorbet DW (2005) Polyphenolic content and sensory properties of normal and high oleic acid peanuts. Food Chem 90:379–388

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Salvatore S, Del Rio D, Bianchi M, Brighenti F (2006) Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:1030–1038

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Talcott ST, Duncan CE, Del Pozo-Insfran D, Gorbet DW (2005) Polyphenolic and antioxidant changes during storage of normal, mid, and high oleic acid peanuts. Food Chem 89:77–84

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Duncan CE, Gorbet DW, Talcott ST (2006) Phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of water-soluble isolates from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Food Res Int 39:898–904

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Rehman Z-U (2003) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extract from peanut hulls in fried potato chips. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 58:75–83

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Hwang J-Y, Shue Y-S, Chang H-M (2001) Antioxidative activity of roasted and defatted peanut kernels. Food Res Int 34:639–647

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Chukwumah Y, Walker L, Vogler B, Verghese M (2007) Changes in the phytochemical composition and profile of raw, boiled, and roasted peanuts. J Agric Food Chem 55:9266–9273

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kotz BA (2009) Vice-President of specialty products. Golden Peanut Company, Alpharetta, GA. Personal Communication.

  17. 17.

    Amarowicz R, Pegg RB, Rahimi-Moghaddam P, Barl B, Weil JA (2004) Free-radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of selected plant species from the Canadian prairies. Food Chem 84:551–562

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Weidner S, Frączek E, Amarowicz R, Abe S (2001) Alterations in phenolic acids content in developing rye grains in normal environment and during enforced dehydration. Acta Physiol Plant 23:475–482

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Swain T, Hillis WE (1959) The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica. I.–The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J Sci Food Agric 10:63–68

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Prior RL, Hoang H, Gu L, Wu X, Bacchiocaa M, Howard L, Hampsch-Woodhill M, Huang D, Ou B, Jacob R (2003) Assays for hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACFL)) of plasma and other biological and food samples. J Agric Food Chem 51:3273–3279

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Pegg RB, Amarowicz R, Naczk M, Shahidi F (2007) PHOTOCHEM® method for determination of antioxidant capacity of plant extracts. In: Shahidi F, Ho C-T (eds) Antioxidant Measurements and Applications. ACS Symposium Series 956, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 140–158

  22. 22.

    Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Rad Biol Med 26:1231–1237

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    O’Rourke N, Hatcher L, Stepanski EJ (2005) A step-by-step approach to using SAS® for univariate and multivariate statistics, 2nd edn. SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Bandara BMR, Hewage CM, Karunaratne V, Adikaram NKB (1988) Methyl ester of para-coumaric acid: Antifungal principle of the rhizome of Costus speciosus. Planta Med 54:477–478

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Horn BW (2005) Colonization of wounded peanut seeds by soil fungi: selectivity for species from Aspergillus section Flavi. Mycologia 97:202–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Zieliński H, Michalska A, Piskuła MK, Kozłowska H (2006) Antioxidants in thermally treated buckwheat groats. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:824–832

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Xu G, Ye X, Chen J, Liu D (2007) Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract. J Agric Food Chem 55:330–335

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Chung S-Y, Champagne ET (2009) Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds. Food Chem 115:1345–1349

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Rhee KS, Watts BM (1966) Evaluation of lipid oxidation in plant tissues. J Food Sci 31:664–668

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    USDA-ARS (2007) Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of selected foods—2007. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=15866 (accessed January 23, 2010)

Download references

Acknowledgments

Financial support for this study was provided by the USDA National Needs Fellowship Program and the Georgia Food Processing Advisory Council (FoodPAC) of Georgia’s Traditional Industries Program for Food Processing. We would also like to acknowledge Robert Karn (Product Development Manager, American Blanching Company, Fitzgerald, GA) and Bruce Kotz (Vice-President of Specialty Products, Golden Peanut Company, Alpharetta, GA) for their insights into peanut processing & production in the US.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ronald Bruce Pegg.

Additional information

An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11130-010-0174-4

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Craft, B.D., Kosińska, A., Amarowicz, R. et al. Antioxidant Properties of Extracts Obtained from Raw, Dry-roasted, and Oil-roasted US Peanuts of Commercial Importance. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65, 311–318 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-010-0160-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antioxidant activity
  • Arachis hypogaea L.
  • p-Coumaric acid
  • ORACFL
  • Peanuts
  • Phenolics
  • Radical-scavenging capacity