Although the fruit of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. Fabaceae) is nutritious and widely available in Turkey, especially in West and South Anatolia, much remains to be learned about its nutrient composition. The main goal of our study was to determine if there are differences in the content of certain nutrients in commercially-prepared carob flour (CPCP) and domestic or home-prepared carob powder (HPCP). Sucrose was the main sugar in CPCP and HPCP. Total protein was 40% lower in CPCP than HPCP due mainly to decreases in the content of several essential amino acids. However, except for lysine in CPCP, HPCP and CPCP compared favourably to a WHO protein standard. There were large differences in terms of their content of the two essential fatty acids, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and the linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid ratio was 3.6 for CPCP, and 6.1 for HPCP. Manganese and iron were 2.5-fold higher in HPCP than CPCP. This study demonstrates that carob flour prepared in either the household or industrially is a good source of many, but not all essential nutrients, and that commercial processing of carob fruit into flour seems to affect its content of several important nutrients.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Home-prepared carob powder
High-performance liquid chromatography
Monounsaturated fatty acid
Commercially-prepared carob powder
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
Refractive index detector
Thermostated column compartment
World Health Organization
Chamberlain DF (1970) Ceratonia L. In: Davis PH (ed) Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp 7–8
Ayaz FA, Torun H, Ayaz S, Correia PJ, Alaiz M, Sanz C, Gruz J, Strnad M (2007) Determination of chemical composition of Anotolian carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.): sugars, amino and organic acid, minerals and phenolic compounds. J Food Qual 30:1040–1055
Roukas T (1999) Citric acid production from carob pod by solid-state fermentation. Enzyme Microb Technol 24:54–59
Biner B, Gubbuk H, Karhan M, Aksu M, Pekmezci M (2007) Sugar profiles of the pods of cultivated and wild types of carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.) in Turkey. Food Chem 100:1453–1455
Yousif A, Alghzawi HM (2000) Processing and characterization of carob powder. Food Chem 69:283–287
Makris DP, Kefalas P (2004) Carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.) as a source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Food Technol Biotechnol 42:105–108
Fletcher R (1997) 13. Carob agroforestry in Portugal and Spain. The Australian New Crops Newsletter. Issue No 7. University of Queesland, Queesland, Australia, 4 p
Glew RH, Glew RS, Chuang L-T, Huang Y-S, Millson M, Constants D, Vanderjagt DJ (2006) Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger. Plant Food Hum Nutr 61:51–56
Cohen SA, Strydom DJ (1988) Amino acid analysis utilizing phenylisothiocyanate derivatives. Anal Biochem 174:1–16
Bidlingmeyer BA, Cohen SA, Tarvin TL (1984) Rapid analysis of amino acids of amino acids using precolumn derivatization. J Chromatogr 336:93–104
Morrison WR, Smith LM (1964) Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron trifluoride-methanol. J Lipid Res 5:600–608
Avallone R, Plessi M, Baraldi M, Monzani A (1997) Determination of the chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua): protein, fat, carbohydrates, and tannins. J Agric Food Chem 10:166–172
Würsch P, Del Vedovo S, Rosset J, Smiley M (1984) The tannin granules from ripe carob pod. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 17:351–354
Saura-Calixto F (1988) Effect of condensed tannins in the analysis of dietary fibre in carob pods. J Food Sci 53:1769–1771
Roukas T (1996) Continuous ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae on mineral kissiris using a two-reactor system. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 59:299–307
van Boekel MAJS (2006) Formation of flavour compounds in the Maillard reaction. Biotechnol Adv 24:230–233
Danehy JP (1986) Maillard reactions: nonenzymatic browning in food systems with special reference to the development of flavour. Advances in Food Research. vol. 30 Academic Press Inc
Morton JF (1987) Carob. In: Dowling CF Jr (ed) Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL, pp 121–124
FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 724. Geneva: WHO
Massaro M, Carluccio MA, De Caterina R (1999) Direct vascular antiatherogenic effects of oleic acid: a clue to the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet. Cardiologia 44(6):507–513
Rizzo WB, Watkins PA, Phillips MW, Cranin D, Campbell B, Avigan J (1986) Adrenoleukodystrophy: oleic acid lowers fibroblast saturated C22–26 fatty acids. Neurology 36:357–361
Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56:365–379
Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Willett W, Siscovick D, Rimm EB (2005) Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation 111:157–164
Souci SW, Fachmann W, Kraut H (1994) Food composition and nutrition tables, 5th edn. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 803–897
Glew RH, Ayaz FA, Vanderjagt DJ, Millson M, Dris R, Niskanen R (2003) Mineral composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica) fruit at different stages of maturity. J Food Qual 26:441–447
Ouzouni PK, Veltsistas PG, Paleologos EK, Riganakos KA (2007) Determination of metal content in wild edible mushroom species from regions of Greece. J Food Comp Anal 20:480–486
Chilsom JJ (1965) Chronic lead intoxication in children. Dev Med Child Neurol 7:529–536
FAO/WHO (1993) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report series 837. Geneva: FAO/WHO
Some of the chemicals, reagents and instrumentation used in the present study were purchased using funds awarded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (TUBITAK-TBAG Project No.: 103 T152). The authors gratefully acknowledge this support.
About this article
Cite this article
Ayaz, F.A., Torun, H., Glew, R.H. et al. Nutrient Content of Carob Pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Flour Prepared Commercially and Domestically. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 64, 286 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-009-0130-3
- Ceratonia siliqua
- Carob pod
- Fatty acids
- Amino acids