A culture of rent seeking

Abstract

Tullock [J Dev Econ 67(2):455–470, 1967] introduced the concept of rent seeking and highlighted the social costs associated with collecting and lobbying for or against tariffs, investing in human and physical capital to facilitate or protect against theft, and expending resources to establish a monopoly. A large portion of the rent-seeking literature suggests how formal and informal institutions impact for rent-seeking activities. Culture also affects rent seeking. Communities can have a culture of rent seeking (CoRS), i.e., a perception shared by members of a society that having influence over political allocations is an important and potentially preferable source of private benefit than other avenues of pursuing economic gain. In this paper, we explore how culture affects the nature and level of rent seeking that a society pursues, and whether institutional shifts can strengthen or break down a CoRS.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Two asides are perhaps useful at this stage. First, obviously, not everyone in a community needs to believe that rent seeking is advantageous and a legitimate strategy to pursue gain for rent seeking to occur in that community. It is enough that some actors view rent seeking in this way. At a minimum, the parties to the political exchanges involved in rent seeking, and those in a position to observe as well as curtail or prevent those exchanges who opt not to intervene, must at some level view the exchanges as legitimate. Second, by saying an economic actor views something as legitimate, we simply mean that the actor does not view it as out of bounds. We do not mean that the actor has or could articulate a fully worked out and consistent moral justification for a particular activity or set of activities.

  2. 2.

    See Congleton et al. (2008) for an extensive overview of the rent seeking literature. This particularly complements our paper, as the authors sought to include papers that are consistent with the notion of institutional origins to rent seeking and that imply institutional reforms are necessary to lessen societal losses associated with rent seeking.

  3. 3.

    As Storr (2013, p. 89) explains, culture “gives content and character to institutions. The ‘same’ institutions are, thus, likely to have different meanings and to be given different moral weights in different cultures. For example, the moral meanings and import associated with failing to greet a subordinate as you enter your workplace, or with lying to a potential customer, or with stealing office supplies from your place of employment are likely to be culturally specific even if there exists very similar if not identical de jure and de facto rules around greeting strangers (even subordinates) in the morning, and against lying (even to potential customers), and against stealing (even from your workplace).”

  4. 4.

    Calabresi (2016) referred to this as the legendary Minneapolis 5% tradition.

  5. 5.

    This definition is consistent with that offered by Hillman and Ursprung (2000). Additionally, as we note below, while more than a single member of a community must view rent seeking as legitimate for us to suggest that a CoRS exists, not all members of a community need possess a CoRS for us to say that a CoRS exists in that community. It is, however, likely that the more people there are in a community who share the view that a particular form of rent seeking is legitimate, the more incidences of that form of rent seeking will occur in that community.

  6. 6.

    In this paper, we employ North’s (1990) definition of institutions and his model of institutional change. However, this is not the only definition of institutions in economics. For instance, Greif (2006, p. 30) defined an institution as “a system of social factors that conjointly generates a regularity of behavior,” or, more specifically, “a system of rules, beliefs, norms, and organizations that together generate a regularity of (social) behavior,” where these factors are “man-made, nonphysical factor that is exogenous to each individual whose behavior it influences.” Greif believed institutions are endogenous and represent the equilibria, not the rules, of a game.

  7. 7.

    In the Indonesian language, for instance, there are: bribes given to soothe or ease the process (uang pelican); bribes to look the other way (uang rokok); bribes given with the expectation that a promise will be kept (titipan); bribes paid in gratitude for a rendered service (uang terima kasih); a cut from a profitable, but illegal, activity (jatah); the opportunity to receive a cut from government funding or project (proyek); and several others (Collins 2007).

  8. 8.

    For instance, in the late 1990s, the Russian central bank was engulfed in a scandal: an offshore company, speculated to be controlled by private Russian business interests, has secretly managed billions of dollars of the country’s foreign exchange reserves over the course of 7 years. When Boris Fyodorov, the former finance minister, questioned this arrangement, he was told to mind his own business. “It was, he says, a money-making scam for the government's cronies and corrupt officials in the Russian Central Bank. ‘They were simply allowing friends to earn handsome profits’” (Reeves 1999). IDEM Foundation (1998) observed:

    An anti-corruption law was adopted by the Russian duma (parliament) in November 1997. The law did not designate as illegal the participation of an official figure in commercial activity for personal benefit. The law did not designate as illegal the use of an official position to divert state resources into private commercial entities for personal benefit, with the involvement to this end of relatives and/or other persons. The law did not designate as illegal the granting of privileges to private commercial structures by an official figure for personal benefit.

  9. 9.

    Again, lobbying, logrolling and coalition building are not necessarily rent seeking. They are only rent seeking if the expenditures on these activities are socially wasteful or their ends that they are aimed at are not socially beneficial.

  10. 10.

    See Alesina and Giuliano (2015) for a comprehensive overview of empirical studies in economics that investigates culture’s impact on economic outcomes, and explores the relationship between culture and (formal) institutions.

  11. 11.

    Granted, although North (1990, p. 37) primarily regarded culture as an informal constraint in an institutional context, he emphasized how “the cultural filter provides continuity so that the informal solution to exchange problems in the past carries over into the present and makes those informal constraints important sources of continuity in the long-run societal change.” He acknowledged that informal rules, such as culture, convey tacit knowledge; merely having explicit knowledge about formal rules would not suggest how an individual should act (and whether his actions would be accepted) within a particular society.

  12. 12.

    As Weber ([1905] 2002, [1905] 2011) explained, an “economic spirit” is a shared perception of how economic success is attained and what economic success looks like. It could alternately be described as an economic culture or a culture of enterprise. In his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, he described the West as possessing a spirit of capitalism characterized by a worldly asceticism that was derived from Calvinism. But, he also noted that different economic spirits were likely to exist in different times and places.

  13. 13.

    For the purposes of this paper, we are going to assume that observed instances of corruption and lobbying are potentially rent seeking, and that an institutional environment that incentivizes these activities and a cultural environment that “encourages” these activities can be described as a rent-seeking society with a CoRS.

  14. 14.

    As Mitchell (2012, p. 30) wrote, “[p]rivileges limit the prospects for mutually beneficial exchange—the very essence of economic progress. They raise prices, lower quality, and discourage innovation. They pad the pockets of the wealthy and well-connected at the expense of the poor and unknown. When governments dispense privileges, smart, hardworking, and creative people are encouraged to spend their time devising new ways to obtain favors instead of new ways to create value for customers. Privileges depress long-run economic growth and threaten short-run macroeconomic stability. They even undermine cultural mores, fostering cronyism, blurring the distinction between productive and unproductive entrepreneurship, and eroding people’s trust in both business and government.”

  15. 15.

    Only Alaska and Mississippi have higher conviction rates of public officials for corruption (Glaeser and Saks 2006, p. 1058).

  16. 16.

    Murphy et al. (1991), similarly, described how human capital can be reallocated in when the payoffs associated with rent seeking increase. As they conclude, the ablest people in a society will switch into rent-seeking occupations when the benefits associated with rent seeking are higher. This, in turn, has a negative effect on economic growth.

  17. 17.

    As suggested above, culture shapes the meanings that community members attach to the use of their social capital and resources. Imagine, for instance, a community comprised of multiple individuals who are politically connected. If a CoRS exists in that community, then we should expect community members to use their connections to gain privileges. If no CoRS exists or there exists a culture where rent seeking is illegitimate in that community, then we should expect that social capital (i.e., the network with politically influential members) to go untapped for rent-seeking activities.

  18. 18.

    Take Dagen H, or Högertrafikomläggningen, as an example. On September 3, 1967, Sweden switched its traffic from driving on the left-hand side to the right-hand side. To ease this switchover, the Swedish government tasked a state commission with overseeing the switch. The committee widely publicized how the switch would logistically occur with a large national campaign and sought to facilitate the switch by changing road signs, repainting streets and reshaping intersections for traffic basically overnight. Yet there were still minor accidents reported on the day of the change and on the first weekday after the switch. This is certainly not an instance of changing the existing attitudes and thoughts of a group of individuals. But it serves to illustrate how a society, looking to merely adjust a behavior that is not so deeply ingrained into the culture, still underwent an adjustment period after when a great deal of information was provided to the public by the government.

  19. 19.

    See also Boettke (2001).

  20. 20.

    As Levin and Satarov (2000, p. 125) explained, “[f]or instance, in the old system there existed special kinds of ‘securities’: documents with a collection of visas, permissions and authorizations ranging from a village in Soviet to the Politburo. The necessity of obtaining these permissions allowed the informal conversion of administrative capital into economic capital. Such practices existed in all branches of authority and at all levels. The tradition has persisted.”

  21. 21.

    This is, of course, not to say that FEX institutions never stick nor succeed. Boettke et al. (2008) pointed to Japan and West Germany’s successful reconstruction after WWII as instances when FEX institutions stuck. Their main point is that any institution or institutional change (whether they are endogenously or exogenously motivated) must align well with the local culture.

  22. 22.

    Some casual observations suggest that the younger generation do and prefer to split bills. See also Choe (2016) and Shin (2016).

  23. 23.

    These evening outings and parties were so frequent that South Korea has a booming industry producing a variety of dietary supplements that lessens or cures hangovers (Babe 2016).

References

  1. Alesina, A., & Giuliano, P. (2015). Culture and institutions. Journal of Economic Literature, 53(4), 898–944.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Alesina, A., Giuliano, P., & Nunn, N. (2013). On the origins of gender roles: Women and the plough. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 128(2), 469–530.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Algan, Y., & Cahuc, P. (2010). Inherited trust and growth. American Economic Review, 100(5), 2060–2092.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anderson, G. M., & Boettke, P. J. (1997). Soviet venality: A rent-seeking model for the communist state. Public Choice, 93, 37–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Anglica, P. D., & Tarko, V. (2014). Crony capitalism: Rent seeking, institutions and ideology. Kyklos, 67(2), 156–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ansolabehere, S., de Figueiredo, J. M., & Snyder, J. M., Jr. (2003). Why is there so little money in US politics? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17(1), 105–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission 국민권익위원회. (2015). Bujŏngch’ŏngt’ag mich’ gŭmp’umdŭng susuŭi gŭmjie gwanhan bŏplyul부정청탁 및 금품등 수수의 금지에관한 법률 [Improper Solicitation and Graft Act]. Seoul.

  8. Applebaum, E., & Katz, E. (1987). Seeking rents by setting rents: The political economy of rent seeking. Economic Journal, 97, 685–699.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Babe, A. (2016). Inside Korea’s booming anti-hangover industry. Vice. Retrieved from https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/qbxazm/inside-koreas-booming-anti-hangover-industry.

  10. Barr, A., & Serra, D. (2010). Corruption and culture: An experimental analysis. Journal of Public Economics, 94(11–12), 862–869.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Baumol, W. J. (1990). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893–921.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Billig, M. S. (2000). Institutions and culture: Neo-Weberian economic anthropology. Journal of Economic Issues, 34(4), 771–788.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Boettke, P. J. (2001). Calculation & coordination: Essays on socialism and transitional political economy. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Boettke, P., Leeson, P., & Coyne, C. (2008). Institutional stickiness and the new development economics. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 67(2), 331–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bourdieu, P. (2002). The forms of capital. In N. W. Biggart (Ed.), Readings in economic sociology. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Boylan, R. T., & Long, C. X. (2002). Measuring public corruption in the American states: A survey of state house reporters. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 3(4), 420–438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Calabresi, G. (2016). The future of law and economics. New Haven: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Chamlee-Wright, E. (1997). The cultural foundations of economic development: Urban female entrepreneurship in Ghana. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Chamlee-Wright, E. (2005). Entrepreneurial responses to “bottom-up” development strategies in Zimbabwe. Review of Austrian Economics, 18(1), 5–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Chamlee-Wright, E., & Storr, V. H. (2009). “There’s no place like New Orleans”: Sense of place and community recovery in the ninth ward after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Urban Affairs, 31(5), 615–634.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Chamlee-Wright, E., & Storr, V. H. (2011). Social capital, lobbying and community-based interest groups. Public Choice, 149, 167–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chen, C. J. P., Li, Z., Su, X., & Sun, Z. (2011). Rent-seeking incentives, corporate political connections, and the control structure of private firms: Chinese evidence. Journal of Corporate Finance, 17(2), 229–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Choe, S.-H. (2014). In South Korea, Spam is the stuff gifts are made of. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/27/world/asia/in-south-korea-spam-is-the-stuff-gifts-are-made-of.html.

  24. Choe, S.-H. (2016). Antigraft law stirs up wariness over South Koreans bearing gifts. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/30/world/asia/south-korea-bribery-law.html?mcubz=0.

  25. Collins, E. F. (2007). Indonesia betrayed: How development fails. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Congleton, R. (1980). Competitive process, competitive waste, and institutions. In J. Buchanan, R. Tollison, & G. Tullock (Eds.), Towards a theory of the rent-seeking society. College Station: Texas A & M Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Congleton, R. (1984). Committees and rent-seeking effort. Journal of Public Economics, 25, 197–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Congleton, R., Hillman, A. L., & Konrad, K. A. (2008). 40 years of research on rent seeking (Vol. 2). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

    Google Scholar 

  29. DeBacker, J., Heim, B. T., & Tran, A. (2015). Importing corruption culture from overseas: Evidence from corporate tax evasion in the United States. Journal of Financial Economics, 117(1), 122–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Fairclough, A. (2008). Race and democracy: The civil rights struggle in Louisiana 1915–1972. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Fisman, R., & Miguel, E. (2007). Corruption, norms, and legal enforcement: Evidence from diplomatic parking tickets. Journal of Political Economy, 115(6), 1020–1048.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Foundation, I. D. E. M. (1998). Russia versus corruption: Who will win?. Moscow: Council of Foreign and Defense Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Gallup. (2017). Corruption continues to plague Indonesia. Retrieved from http://news.gallup.com/poll/157073/corruption-continues-plague-indonesia.aspx.

  34. Glaeser, E. L., & Saks, R. E. (2006). Corruption in America. Journal of Public Economics, 90(6–7), 1053–1072.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Glazer, A., & Hassin, R. (1988). Optimal contests. Economic Inquiry, 26, 133–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Gradstein, M., & Konrad, K. A. (1999). Orchestrating rent seeking contests. Economic Journal, 109, 536–545.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Greif, A. (1994). Cultural beliefs and the organization of society: A historical and theoretical reflection on collectivist and individualist societies. Journal of Political Economy, 102(5), 912–950.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Grief, A. (2006). Institutions and the path to the modern economy: Lessons from medieval trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Grube, L., & Storr, V. H. (Eds.). (2015). Culture and economic action. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2006). Does culture affect economic outcomes? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(2), 23–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2016). Long-term persistence. Journal of European Economic Association, 14(6), 1401–1436.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Henderson, J. V., Kuncoro, A. (2004). Corruption in Indonesia. NBER Working Paper #10674.

  43. Hillman, A. L., & Katz, E. (1987). Hierarchical structure and the social costs of bribes and transfers. Journal of Public Economics, 34, 129–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Hillman, A. L., & Ursprung, H. W. (2000). Political culture and economic decline. European Journal of Political Economy, 16, 189–213.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Ismar, A., Husna, F. (2013). Indonesia survey shows many view bribing police as ‘normal.’ The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323374504578217233571667400.

  46. Jurkiewicz, C. (2009). Political leadership, cultural ethics and recovery: Louisiana post-Katrina. Public Organization Review, 9(4), 353–366.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Katz, E., & Tokatlidu, J. (1996). Group competition for rents. European Journal of Political Economy, 12, 599–607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. KBS (2017). Corporate entertainment costs drop after anti-corruption law. Retrieved from http://world.kbs.co.kr/english/news/news_Dm_detail.htm?No=130496.

  49. Kim, E.-J. (2016). Anti-graft law changes dining scene, gift culture. Yonhap News. Retrieved from http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/focus/2016/10/27/58/1700000000AEN20161027006600320F.html.

  50. Kirzner, I. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Knack, S., & Keefer, P. (1997). Does social capital have an economic payoff? A cross-country investigation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4), 1251–1288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Konrad, K. A. (2004). Inverse campaigning. Economic Journal, 114, 69–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Korea Herald (2017). Adjust anti-graft law. Retrieved from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20170925000525.

  54. Krueger, A. O. (1974). The political economy of the rent-seeking society. American Economic Review, 64, 291–303.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Lavoie, D. (1991). The discovery and interpretation of profit opportunities. In B. Berger (Ed.), The culture of entrepreneurship. Ithaca: ICS Press.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Lavoie, D., & Chamlee-Wright, E. (2000). Culture and enterprise: The development, representation, and morality of business. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Leeson, P. T. (2013). Vermin Trials. Journal of Law and Economics, 56, 811–836.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Leeson, P. T. (Forthcoming). Why do we need behavioral economics to explain law?. European Journal of Law and Economics.

  59. Levin, M., & Satarov, G. (2000). Corruption and institutions in Russia. European Journal of Political Economy, 6(1), 113–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Lewis, G. H. (2000). From Minnesota fat to Seoul food: Spam in America and the Pacific Rim. Journal of Popular Culture, 34(2), 83–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Mitchell, M. (2012). Economic freedom and economic privilege. In T. Miller, K. Holmes & E. Feulner (Eds.), The 2013 index of economic freedom. Washington, D.C.: The Heritage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Mitchell, M. (2014). The pathology of privilege: The economic consequences of government favoritism. Arlington, VA: The Mercatus Center.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Montinola, G. R., & Jackman, R. W. (2002). Sources of corruption: A cross-country study. British Journal of Political Science, 32(1), 147–170.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Morck, R., & Yeung, B. (2004). Family control and the rent-seeking society. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(4), 391–409.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Murphy, K. M., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1991). The allocation of talent: Implications for growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2), 503–530.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Murphy, K. M., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1993). Why is rent-seeking so costly to growth? American Economic Review, 83(2), 409–414.

    Google Scholar 

  67. North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Nunn, N., & Wantchekon, L. (2011). The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa. American Economic Review, 101, 3221–3252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. OECD (2015). Better Life Index. Retrieved from http://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/.

  70. Ogura, K. (2016). South Korea’s new graft law strikes deep into corporate culture. Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/a53294b6-8173-11e6-bc52-0c7211ef3198?mhq5j=e6.

  71. Paldam, M. (2001). Corruption and religion adding to the model. Kyklos, 54, 383–414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Park, J. H. (2016). Beopwon, gimyeongramnbeop wiban cheot sarye 50dae yeoseonge gwataeryo 9manwon 법원, 김영란법 위반 첫 사례 50대 여성에 과태료 9만원 [Court tries first case of violation of Kim Young Ran-Act against a woman in her fifties, penalty of KRW 90,000]. Joongang Daily. Retrieved from http://news.joins.com/article/20980330.

  73. Persson, T. (2002). Do political institutions shape economic outcomes? Econometrica, 70(3), 883–905.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Putnam, R., Leonardi, R., & Nanetti, R. (1993). Making democracy work. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Reeves, P. (1999). Russian leaders accused of scam. Independent. Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/russian-leaders-accused-of-scam-1070296.html.

  76. Shin, H.-H. (2016). Anti-graft law ushers in ‘Dutch pay’ culture. The Korea Herald. Retrieved from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20160928000905.

  77. Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1993). Corruption. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), 599–617.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Storr, V. H. (2002). All we’ve learnt: Colonial teachings and Caribbean underdevelopment. Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, 12(4), 589–615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Storr, V. H. (2004). Enterprising slaves & master pirates: Understanding economic life in the Bahamas. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Storr, V. H. (2013). Understanding the culture of markets. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Suzuki, S. (2017). A year on, South Korea’s wining-and-dining curbs sinking in. Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved from https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics-Economy/Policy-Politics/A-year-on-South-Korea-s-wining-and-dining-curbs-sinking-in.

  82. Svensson, J. (2000). Foreign aid and rent seeking. Journal of International Economics, 51, 437–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Szymanski, S., & Valletti, T. M. (2005). Incentive effects of second prizes. European Journal of Political Economy, 21, 467–481.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Tabellini, G. (2010). Culture and institutions: Economic development in the regions of Europe. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(4), 677–716.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Tella, R. D., & MacCulloch, R. (2009). Why doesn’t capitalism flow to poor countries? Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 40(1), 285–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Torvik, R. (2002). Natural resources, rent seeking and welfare. Journal of Development Economics, 67(2), 455–470.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Tullock, G. (1967). The welfare costs of tariffs, monopolies, and theft. Western Economic Journal, 5, 224–232.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Tullock, G. (1972). The purchase of politicians. Western Economic Journal, 10, 354–355.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Tullock, G. (1980). Efficient rent seeking. In J. M. Buchanan, R. D. Tollison, & G. Tullock (Eds.), Towards a theory of the rent-seeking society. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Tullock, G. (1989). The economics of special privilege and rent seeking. Berlin: Springer Science + Business Media.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Tullock, G., Brady, G., & Seldon, A. (2002). Government failure A primer in public choice. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Voigtlander, N., & Voth, H.-J. (2012). Persecution perpetuated: The medieval origins of anti-Semitic violence in Nazi Germany. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 127(3), 1339–1392.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Weber, M. ([1905] 2002). The Protestant ethic and the “spirit” of capitalism and other writings (P. Baehr & G. Wells, Trans.). London: Penguin Books.

  94. Weber, M. ([1905] 2011). The Protestant ethic and the “spirit” of capitalism: The revised 1920 edition (S. Kalberg, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.

  95. Williams, T. H. (1983). The selected essays of T. Harry Williams. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Zingales, L. (2014). A capitalism for the people: Recapturing the lost genius of American prosperity. New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Virgil Henry Storr.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Choi, S.G., Storr, V.H. A culture of rent seeking. Public Choice 181, 101–126 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-018-0557-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Tullock
  • Rent seeking
  • Culture