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Table 3 Relatives abroad, remittances, and corruption experience and attitudes: conditional correlations

From: Does emigration reduce corruption?

  Contacted public official Paid a bribe Was asked for bribe Accept bribe offering Accept bribe taking by officials
  Probit Probit Probit OLS OLS
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Relatives abroad, no remittances 0.237***
(0.054)
0.059
(0.063)
0.224***
(0.068)
−0.047
(0.055)
−0.061
(0.049)
Remittances 0.237***
(0.082)
0.112
(0.075)
0.333***
(0.075)
0.060
(0.093)
0.008
(0.084)
Socio-demographic controls Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Country/region fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year dummy (2011) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations 12,084 8771 12,084 11,743 11,678
Prob > Chi2/Prob > F 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
  1. *** p < 0.01; ** p < 0.05; * p < 0.1, robust standard errors, clustered at the municipality level, in parentheses. Only respondents who had a contact with public officials are included in Model 2. See Supplementary Information for complete econometric output