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Table 1 The effects of emigration on corruption outcomes of household members staying behind: summary of channels

From: Does emigration reduce corruption?

Channel Direction of effect
Value transfer Less or more corruption, depending on whether corruption is more prevalent abroad or at home
Communication effect through remittances Amplifies the value transfer channel
Conditionality effect through remittances Amplifies the value transfer channel
Income effect through remittances More corruption
Substitution effect through remittances Less corruption