Public Choice

, Volume 157, Issue 3–4, pp 367–385 | Cite as

The VP-function revisited: a survey of the literature on vote and popularity functions after over 40 years

  • Michael S. Lewis-Beck
  • Mary Stegmaier


Nannestad and Paldam (Public Choice 79:213–245, 1994) published herein an extremely influential review of the literature linking economics and elections, what they called the “VP functions.” In that work, they offered a number of conclusions, in proposition form, about the state of the evidence in this field. We present the key ones (16 in all), and assess the extent to which they continue to hold, in light of the new evidence about what has come to be known as economic voting. As shall be shown, Nannestad and Paldam were prescient in their early establishment of many of the principal results explaining how the economy moves the vote choice.


Economic voting Elections Popularity Vote functions Government support 



The contributions of Martin Paldam to the fields of economics and political science are many. For us, foremost are his contributions to economic voting, that is, to tracing out the lines of connection between the economy and the democratic vote. His early work is well-represented in his seminal paper with Peter Nannestad, a paper honored in the review at hand. Martin’s work was pioneering, and most of his key findings have withstood the test of time as this review demonstrates. Moreover, his current efforts continue to shape the research agenda of political economists the world over. To Martin Paldam we scholars of economic voting owe a great debt.


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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