Public Choice

, Volume 123, Issue 1–2, pp 19–37

In Play: A Commentary on Strategies in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election


DOI: 10.1007/s11127-005-3209-x

Cite this article as:
Merolla, J., Munger, M. & Tofias, M. Public Choice (2005) 123: 19. doi:10.1007/s11127-005-3209-x


A lot of military battle plans going back to the Civil War say ‘whoever controls the Mississippi controls America.’ And Bush is marching straight up the Mississippi,” the Democratic strategist said. “We’ve just retreated from Louisiana, Arkansas and Missouri. They already control Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky. Bush is now moving in on Iowa and Wisconsin. And except for Illinois, which isn’t in play, there’s only one state left: Minnesota, the mouth of the river. And it’s dead even [i.e., a tie] there.” From, ALLPOLITICS, September 23, 2004: Mercurio, John and Molly Levinson. “CNN Survey: Bush widens lead in Electoral College.” CNN Political Unit. 27 Sept. 2004 < 09/23/>

All total, 21 states are in play. Some will bounce between “lean [toward a candidate]” to “tossup” throughout the campaign.USA Today, July 25, 2004: “AP: Bush leads Kerry in electoral votes.” A.P. 25 July 2004, <w>

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Merolla
    • 1
  • Michael Munger
    • 2
  • Michael Tofias
    • 2
  1. 1.Claremont Graduate University and Duke UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Duke UniversityUSA

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