Traumatic Brain Injury and Psychiatric Co-Morbidity in the United States
The objective of the present study was to provide a nationally representative psychiatric epidemiologic investigation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its co-morbid conditions. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) collected between 2012 and 2013 was used. Results indicated that TBI was significantly associated with any lifetime mental health (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.65–3.70), substance use disorder (AOR = 1.57–1.01-2.42), and violent (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.03–2.65) and nonviolent (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.25–2.70) criminal behaviors. In our study, TBI was highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders and especially antisocial behaviors, both violent and non-violent.
KeywordsTraumatic brain injury TBI Violence Substance use Mental health
This research was supported in part by grant number R25 DA030310 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health and by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through BU-CTSI Grant Number 1KL2TR001411. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- 1.Brenner LA, Hostetter TA, Barnes SM, Stearns-Yoder KA, Soberay KA, Forster JE. Traumatic brain injury, psychiatric diagnoses, and suicide risk among veterans seeking services related to homelessness. Brain Inj. 2017;31:1731–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2017.1376758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Adams RS, Corrigan JD, Mohr BA, Williams TV, Larson MJ. Traumatic brain injury and post-deployment binge drinking among male and female army active duty service members returning from operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom. J Neurotrauma. 2017;34:1457–65. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2016.4693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Scofield DE, Proctor SP, Kardouni JR, Hill OT, McKinnon CJ. Risk factors for mild traumatic brain injury and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health disorders among United States army soldiers. J Neurotrauma. 2017;34:3249–55. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2017.5101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III). https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/research/nesarc-iii. Accessed 11 July 2018.
- 27.Grant BF, Goldstein RB, Smith SM, Jung J, Zhang H, Chou SP, et al. The alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview Schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5): reliability of substance use and psychiatric disorder modules in a general population sample. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;148:27–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Vaughn MG, Salas-Wright CP, Maynard BR, Qian Z, Terzis L, Kusow AM, et al. Criminal epidemiology and the immigrant paradox: intergenerational discontinuity in violence and antisocial behavior among immigrants. J Crim Justice. 2014;42:483–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2014.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar