Psychiatric Quarterly

, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp 395–405 | Cite as

Insight Across the Different Mood States of Bipolar Disorder

  • Rafael de Assis da SilvaEmail author
  • Daniel C. Mograbi
  • Luciana Angélica Silva Silveira
  • Ana Letícia Santos Nunes
  • Fernanda Demôro Novis
  • J. Landeira-Fernandez
  • Elie Cheniaux
Original Paper


In bipolar disorder, levels of insight vary as a function of the mood state and appear to influence pharmacology compliance, quality of life, the presence of suicidal ideations, and aggressive behavior. To establish a comparison among different mood states in bipolar with regard to level of insight. Forty-eight patients were evaluated in different affective states (i.e., euthymia, mania, depression, and mixed state). Identifying information, sociodemographic data, and clinical records were recorded. The following scales were applied: Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptoms subscale, and Global Assessment of Functioning and Clinical Global Impressions Scale for use in bipolar disorder. Insight was evaluated using items 11 and 17 of the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale, respectively. Insight in bipolar disorder was found to be more compromised during manic phases and mixed episodes than during periods of depression or euthymia. The factors associated with lower levels of insight were the following: shorter illness duration, older age, and greater severity in mania; the female gender and older age in depression; and shorter illness duration and more severe depressive symptoms in mixed episodes. In the same individual, levels of insight vary as a function of the affective state over the course of bipolar disorder and appear to be influenced by several clinical variables.


Insight Bipolar disorder Mania Depression Euthymia 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael de Assis da Silva
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daniel C. Mograbi
    • 3
    • 6
  • Luciana Angélica Silva Silveira
    • 1
  • Ana Letícia Santos Nunes
    • 1
  • Fernanda Demôro Novis
    • 1
  • J. Landeira-Fernandez
    • 3
    • 4
  • Elie Cheniaux
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratório de Transtorno Bipolar do Humor, Instituto de Psiquiatria daUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Universidade Estácio de Sá (UNESA)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  5. 5.Faculdade de Ciências Médicas daUniversidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FCM/UERJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  6. 6.Institute of PsychiatryKing’s CollegeLondonUK

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