Advertisement

PROSPECTS

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 73–91 | Cite as

Languages in adult literacy: Policies and practices in Education for All and beyond

Open File

Abstract

Linguistic diversity characterizes many countries with large literacy needs. Meeting these needs will require a multilingual approach based on learning initial literacy in the learner’s mother tongue, with other languages used subsequently. This article identifies five major challenges in implementing multilingual programmes and traces the international policy developments over the 15 years of the EFA period. Four case studies—Mexico, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, and Senegal—illustrate a range of policies with differing approaches and levels of commitment to providing multilingual literacy opportunities. The article concludes with six policy orientations to guide action as part of the post-2015 agenda.

Keywords

Adult education Education for All Literacy Multilingual programmes 

References

  1. ANLCA [Agence Nationale de Lutte contre l’Analphabétisme] (n.d.). Programme de préparation à l’apprentissage de l’arabe en utilisant des passerelles linguistiques (Darija et Amazighe) 2005–2007 [Programme to prepare Arabic learning using language bridges (Darija and Amazighe)]. Rabat: ANLCA.Google Scholar
  2. ANLCA (2014). Personal e-mail communication (20 March).Google Scholar
  3. Barton, D., & Hamilton, M. (1998). Local literacies: Reading and writing in one community. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Belmont, A. (2012). Language learning in Peru: “De mi cerebro, su neurona”. In B. della Chiesa, J. Scott, & C. Hinton (Eds.), Languages in a global world: Learning for better cultural understanding (pp. 303–316). Paris: OECD.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benavot, A. (2015). Literacy in the 21st century: Towards a dynamic nexus of social relations. International Review of Education, 61(3), 273–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins, J., & Blot, R. (2003). Literacy and literacies: Texts, power, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Constitución (2014). Constitución política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos [Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico]. http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/1.pdf.
  8. CRES [Consortium pour la Recherche Economique et Sociale] (2012). Evaluation des 10 ans du PDEF (Programme Décennal de l’Education et de la Formation) [Evaluation of the ten years of the PDEF (Ten-year Education and Training Programme)]. Dakar: CRES.Google Scholar
  9. Department of Education (2004). Achieving a better future: A national plan for education 2005–2014. Waigani, Papua New Guinea: Department of Education.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Education (2009). Achieving universal education for a better future: Universal basic education plan 2010–2019. Waigani, Papua New Guinea: National Executive Council.Google Scholar
  11. Desmond, S., & Elfert, M. (Eds.) (2008). Family literacy: Experiences from Africa and around the world. Hamburg/Cape Town: UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning [UIL]/dvv International.Google Scholar
  12. Elfert, M. (Ed.) (2008). Family literacy: A global approach to lifelong learning—Effective practices in family literacy and intergenerational learning around the world. Hamburg: UIL.Google Scholar
  13. Gobierno de México (2012). Informe nacional de progreso presentado por el seguimiento de la CONFINTEA VI [National report on progress prepared for the CONFINTEA VI follow-up]. Hamburg: UIL.Google Scholar
  14. Government of Papua New Guinea (1986). A philosophy of education for Papua New Guinea. Waigani, Papua New Guinea: Ministerial committee report.Google Scholar
  15. Haeri, N. (2000). Form and ideology: Arabic sociolinguistics and beyond. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, 61–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herbert, P., & Robinson, C. (2000). Another language, another literacy? Practices in Northern Ghana. In B. Street (Ed.), Literacy and development: Ethnographic perspectives (pp. 121–136). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. INALI [Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas] (2014). Cátologo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales [Catalogue of national indigenous languages]. http://www.inali.gob.mx/clin-inali/#agr.
  18. INEA [Instituto Nacional para la Educación de los Adultos] (2008). Results updated summary 1997–2007. INEA: México D.F.Google Scholar
  19. INEA (2012). Informe de rendición de cuentas [Accountability report]. Mexico City: INEA.Google Scholar
  20. Kosonen, K., & Young, C. (Eds.) (2009). Mother tongue as bridge language of instruction: Policies and experiences in Southeast Asia. Bangkok: SEAMEO/World Bank/Global Partnership for Education.Google Scholar
  21. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.) (2013). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (17th ed.). Dallas: SIL International.Google Scholar
  22. Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (2003). http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/257.pdf.
  23. Litteral, R. (2001). Language development in Papua New Guinea. Radical Pedagogy, 3(1). http://www.radicalpedagogy.org/radicalpedagogy.org/Language_Development_In_Papua_New_Guinea.html.
  24. National Department of Education (2008). National report on the state-of-the-art of adult learning and education in Papua New Guinea: A situation analysis. Waigani, Papua New Guinea: Department of Education.Google Scholar
  25. NLAS [National Literacy and Awareness Secretariat] (2012). Government of Papua New Guinea national progress report: Follow-up of CONFINTEA VI. Waigani, Papua New Guinea: Department of Education.Google Scholar
  26. OIE [Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura] (2006). Plan Iberoamericano de Alfabetización y Educación Básica de Personas Jóvenes y Adultas 2007–2015 [Ibero-american Literacy and Basic Education Plan for Youth and Adults 2007-2015]. Madrid: OEI.Google Scholar
  27. Pinnock, H. (2009). Language and education: The missing link—How the language used in schools threatens the achievement of Education for All. London: CfBT [Centre for British Teachers] and Save the Children Alliance.Google Scholar
  28. PNG Constitution (1975). Constitution of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. Waigani, Papua New Guinea: Constituent Assembly.Google Scholar
  29. Rapport de restitution (2004). Rapport de restitution du colloque de Conakry sur l’utilisation des langues nationales dans les systèmes éducatifs [Feedback report of the Conakry colloquium on the use of local languages in educational systems]. Unpublished report. Dakar: Conakry Colloquim.Google Scholar
  30. République du Sénégal (2001). Constitution de la République du Sénégal [Constitution of the Republic of Senegal]. Dakar: Journal Officiel.Google Scholar
  31. République du Sénégal (2009). Tendances récentes et situation actuelle de l’éducation et de la formation des adultes (EDFOA). Rapport national du Sénégal à la Sixième Conférence internationale sur l’éducation des adultes (CONFINTEA VI, Brésil 2009). Dakar: Ministère de la Culture, du Patrimoine Historique Classé, des Langues Nationales et de la Francophonie; Direction de l’Alphabétisation et des Langues Nationales.Google Scholar
  32. République du Sénégal (2012a). Projet de document de politique d’alphabétisation, d’éducation non formelle et de développement des langues nationales. Draft policy document for literacy, nonformal education and national language development. Dakar: Ministère de l’Enseignement Elémentaire, du Moyen Secondaire et des Langues Nationales (MEEMSLN).Google Scholar
  33. République du Sénégal (2012b). Lettre de politique générale pour le secteur de l’éducation et de la formation [Statement of general policy for the education and training sector]. Dakar: République du Sénégal.Google Scholar
  34. République du Sénégal (2013). PAQUET (Programme d’amélioration de la qualité, de l’equité et de la transparence): Secteur éducation formation 2013–2025 [Programme for the improvement of quality, equity and transparency: education and training sector 2013–2025]. Dakar: Ministère de la Femme, de l’Enfant et de l’Entrepreneuriat Féminin; Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale; Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche; Ministère de la Formation Professionnelle, de l’Apprentissage et de l’Artisanat.Google Scholar
  35. Richmond, M., Robinson, C., & Sachs-Israel, M. (2009). The global literacy challenge: A profile of youth and adult literacy at the mid-point of the United Nations Literacy Decade 2003–2012. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  36. Robinson, C. (2005a). Promoting literacy: What is the record of Education for All (EFA)? International Journal of Educational Development, 25(4), 436–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Robinson, C. (2005b). Languages and literacies. Paper commissioned for the 2006 EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris: UNESCO. Google Scholar
  38. Robinson, C. (2007). Context or key? Language in four adult learning programmes. International Journal of Educational Development, 27(5), 542–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Royaume du Maroc (1999). Charte nationale d’education et de formation [National Education and Training Charter]. Rabat: Commission Spéciale Education Formation (CESF).Google Scholar
  40. Royaume du Maroc (2004). Stratégie d’alphabétisation et d’éducation non formelle [Strategy for literacy and nonformal education]. Rabat: Direction de l’Education Non Formelle.Google Scholar
  41. Royaume du Maroc (2012). Alphabétisation au Maroc: Bilan 2007–2012 [Literacy in Morocco: 2007–2012 Report]. Rabat: Direction de l’Education Non Formelle.Google Scholar
  42. Royaume du Maroc (2013). Stratégie des approches non formelles pour l’insertion scolaire et professionnelle des non scolarisés et des déscolarisés [Strategy for nonformal approaches to educational and vocational opportunities for unschooled and dropout children]. Rabat: Direction de l’Education Non Formelle.Google Scholar
  43. Schmelkes Guadalupe Águila, S., & de los Ángeles Núñez, M. (2009). Alfabetización de jóvenes y adultos indígenas en México [Literacy programmes for indigenous youth and adults in Mexico]. In L. E. López, & U. Hanemann (Eds.), Alfabetización y multiculturalidad: Miradas desde América Latina (pp. 237–290). Hamburg: UIL.Google Scholar
  44. Secretaría de Educación Pública (2007). Programa sectorial de educación 2007–2012 [Education Sector Programme 2007–2012]. Mexico City: Secretaría de Educación Pública.Google Scholar
  45. Secretaría de Educación Pública (2013). Programa sectorial de educación 2013–2018 [Education Sector Programme 2013–2018]. Mexico City: Secretaría de Educación Pública.Google Scholar
  46. SIL International (2008a). Why languages matter: Meeting millennium development goals through local languages. Dallas: SIL.Google Scholar
  47. SIL International (2008b). Multilingual education: Mother-tongue-first education in a multilingual world. Dallas: SIL.Google Scholar
  48. Street, B. (1995). Social literacies: Critical approaches to literacy in development, ethnography and education. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  49. Street, B. (Ed.) (2005). Literacies across educational contexts: Mediating learning and teaching. Philadelphia: Caslon.Google Scholar
  50. Trudell, B. (2004). The power of the local: Education choices and language maintenance among the Bafut, Kom and Nso’ communities of Northwest Cameroon. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  51. UN (2002). United Nations literacy decade: Education for all. International plan of Action; implementation of General Assembly resolution 56/116. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/file_download.php/f0b0f2edfeb55b03ec965501810c9b6caction+plan+English.pdf.
  52. UN (2013a). Implementation of the international plan of action for the United Nations Literacy Decade (UN General Assembly A/68/201). http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N13/408/99/PDF/N1340899.pdf?OpenElement.
  53. UN (2013b). A new global partnership: Eradicate poverty and transform economies through sustainable development. Report of the high-level panel of eminent persons on the post-2015 development agenda. New York: UN.Google Scholar
  54. UN (2014). Open Working Group Proposal for Sustainable Development Goals. http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
  55. UN (2015). Sustainable development goals. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgsproposal.html.
  56. UNESCO (1953). The use of vernacular languages in education. Monographs on Fundamental Education VIII. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  57. UNESCO (2002). Education for All: Is the world on track? EFA Global Monitoring Report 2002. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  58. UNESCO (2003). Education in a multilingual world. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  59. UNESCO (2004). The plurality of literacy and its implications for policies and programmes. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  60. UNESCO (2005). Literacy for life. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2006. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  61. UNESCO (2009). United Nations literacy decade: International strategic framework for action. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  62. UNESCO (2013). Concept note on the post-2015 education agenda. Document submitted by UNESCO to the 37th Session of the General Conference, 5–20 November.Google Scholar
  63. UNESCO (2014). Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/4. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  64. UNESCO (2015). Education for All 2000–2015: Achievements and challenges. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  65. UNESCO/UNICEF (2013). Making education a priority in the post-2015 agenda. Report of the global thematic consultation on education in the post-2015 development agenda. Paris/New York: UNESCO/UNICEF.Google Scholar
  66. World Bank (2005). In their own language… Education for All. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  67. World Declaration on Education for All (1990). Meeting basic learning needs. World conference on Education for All. Jomtien, Thailand (5–9 March).Google Scholar
  68. World Education Forum (2000). The Dakar framework for action. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  69. Zaidan, O. F., & Callison-Burch, C. (2014). Arabic dialect identification. Computational Linguistics, 40(1), 171–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© UNESCO IBE 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations