, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 345–363 | Cite as

Schools and learning in rural India and Pakistan: Who goes where, and how much are they learning?

  • Benjamin AlcottEmail author
  • Pauline Rose
Open File


It is increasingly recognized that there is a global learning crisis. This article investigates this learning crisis through a comparative analysis of rural India and Pakistan. Using data from each country’s Annual Status of Education Report, it demonstrates that socioeconomic status and gender are important determinants of whether children are in school, the type of school they attend, and whether they are learning. While learning varies across schools, socioeconomic disparities predominate: disadvantaged children in private schools are learning less than more advantaged children in government schools. Gender also plays an important role, with disparities between boys and girls most pronounced among poorer children in Pakistan. In addition, while private tuition improves learning for all children, it does not resolve socioeconomic and gender disparities. The study indicates that policymakers need to focus on government schools since that is where most of the poorest children study and where learning levels are lowest. The fact that more advantaged children are learning in government schools indicates the role that such schools can play in education.


Rural education Private schools Learning Inequality India Pakistan 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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