This article offers a definition of prejudice and then reviews the literature on relevant theories of its development and methods to identify and map it. It then discusses how prejudice is institutionalised and legitimised in schools, before turning to the main thrust of its investigation: the extent to which international education (K-12) can reduce prejudice. It then offers several sets of suggestions on how to reduce prejudice in schools, drawing on research, theory, and practice.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aboud, F. E. (1988). Children and prejudice. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Aboud, F. E., & Amato, M. (2001). Developmental and socialization influences on intergroup bias. In G. J. O. Fletcher & M. S. Clark (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 65–85). Oxford: Blackwell.
Aboud, F. E., & Doyle, A. B. (1993). The early development of ethnic identity and attitudes. In M. E. Bernal & G. P. Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 47–59). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
Appiah, K. A. (2005). The ethics of identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Apple, M. (1979). Ideology and curriculum. Boston: Routledge & Kegan.
Aronson, E. (2000). The jigsaw strategy: Reducing prejudice in the classroom. Psychology Review, 7(2), 2–5.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Banks, C. A. M., & Banks, J. A. (1995). Equity pedagogy: An essential component of multicultural education. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 152–158.
Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries. London: Allen and Unwin.
Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, 179–196.
Ben-Yehuda, N. (1995). The Masada myth: Collective memory and mythmaking in Israel. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Berger, P., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Bhabha, H. K. (1990). The third space: Interview with Homi Bhabha. In J. Rutherford (Ed.), Identity, community, culture, difference (pp. 207–221). London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Blackburn, G. W. (1985). Education in the Third Reich: A study of race and history in Nazi textbooks. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Boorstin, D., & Kelley, B. M. (1990). A history of the United States since 1861. Needham, MA: Prentice Hall.
Brighouse, H. (2003). Should we teach patriotic history? In K. McDonough & W. Feinberg (Eds.), Education and citizenship in liberal-democratic societies (pp. 157–175). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bruner, J. (1996). The culture of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Byram, M. (2009). Evaluation and/or assessment of intercultural competence. In A. Hu & M. Byram (Eds.), Interkulturelle Kompetenz und fremdsprachliches Lernen [Intercultural competence and the teaching of foreign languages] (pp. 215–234). Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
Byran, A., & Vavrus, F. (2005). The promises and peril of education: The teaching of in/tolerance in an era of globalisation. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 3, 183–202.
Cambridge, J. (2012). International education research and the sociology of knowledge. Journal of Research in International Education, 11(3), 230–244.
Camicia, S. P. (2007). Prejudice reduction through multicultural education: Connecting multiple literatures. Social Studies Research and Practice, 2(2), 219–227.
CIS [Council of International Schools] (2013). Global citizenship. http://www.cois.org/page.cfm?p=1045.
Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1947). Racial identification and preference among Negro children. In T. M. Newcomb & E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology (pp. 169–178). New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston.
Cohen, E. G., & Lotan, R. A. (2004). Equity in heterogeneous classrooms. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 736–752). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Cushner, K. (2008). International socialization of young people: Obstacles and opportunities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 164–173.
Deardorff, D. (2009). Synthesizing conceptualizations of intercultural competence: A summary and emerging themes. In D. Deardorff (Ed.), The Sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 264–270). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dollard, J., Doob, L. W., Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Domnitz, M. (1971). Prejudice in textbooks. Patterns of Prejudice, 5(3), 7–10.
Elliott, J. (2013). Jane Elliott’s blue eyes brown eyes exercise. http://www.janeelliott.com/index.htm.
Fanon, F. (1952). Peau noire, masques blancs [Black skin, white masks]. Paris: Seuil.
Foucault, M. (1975). Surveiller et punir [Discipline and punish]. Paris: Gallimard.
Freire, P. (1982). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1948). A study in prejudice in children. Human Relations, 1, 295–306.
Funkenstein, A. (1989). Collective memory and historical consciousness. History and Memory, 7(1), 5–26.
Gaertner, S. L., Mann, J. A., Dovidio, J. F., Murrell, A. J., & Pomare, M. (1990). How does cooperation reduce intergroup bias? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 692–704.
Gillborn, D. (2008). Racism and education. New York: Routledge.
Gillespie, A., Howarth, C. S., & Cornish, F. (2012). Four problems for researchers using social categories. Culture & Psychology, 18, 391–402.
Giroux, H. A. (2003). Critical theory and educational practice. In A. Darder, M. Batodano, & R. D. Torres (Eds.), The critical pedagogy reader (pp. 27–56). New York: Routledge.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4–27.
Gross, R. (2001). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Gullahorn, J. R., & Gullahorn, J. E. (1962). An extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of Social Issues, 3, 33–47.
Gunesch, K. (2004). Education for cosmopolitanism? Cosmopolitanism as a personal cultural identity model for and within international education. Journal of Research in International Education, 3(3), 251–275.
Habermas, J. (1973). Theory and practice. Boston: Beacon Press.
Haegel, F. (1999). The effect of education on the expression of negative views towards immigrants in France: The influence of the republican model put to the test. In L. Hagendoorn & S. Nekuee (Eds.), Education and racism: A cross national inventory of positive effects of education on ethnic tolerance. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Hanassab, S. (2006). Diversity, international students and perceived discrimination: Implications for educators and counsellors. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(2), 157–172.
Haywood, T. (2007). A simple typology of international-mindedness and its implications for education. In M. Hayden, J. Thompson, & J. Levy (Eds.), The Sage handbook of international education (pp. 79–90). London: Sage.
Heritage, M. (2008). Learning progressions: Supporting instruction and formative assessment. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.
Hill, I. (2000). Internationally minded schools. International Schools Journal, 20(1), 24–37.
Hill, I. (2012). An international model of world-class education: The International Baccalaureate. Prospects, 42(3), 341–359. doi:10.1007/s11125-012-9243-9.
Holliday, A. (2010). Complexity in cultural identity. Language and Intercultural Communication, 10, 165–177.
Horowitz, R. E. (1939). Racial aspects of self-identification in nursery school children. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 7, 91–99.
Hovland, C., & Sears, R. R. (1940). Minor studies in aggression VI: Correlation of lynching with economic indices. Journal of Psychology, 9, 301–310.
Hughes, C. (2009). International education and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: A view from the perspective of postcolonial thought. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(2), 123–141.
IB [International Baccalaureate] (2013). Four programmes at a glance. http://www.ibo.org/programmes/.
Jasinska-Kania, A. (1999). The impact of education on racism in Poland compared with other European countries. In L. Hagendoorn & S. Nekuee (Eds.), Education and racism: A cross-national inventory of positive effects of education on ethnic tolerance (pp. 75–92). Aldershot: Ashgate.
Jokikokko, K. (2009). The role of significant others in the intercultural learning of teachers. Journal of Research in International Education, 8(2), 142–163.
Kammen, M. (1991). Mystic chords of memory: The transformation of tradition in American culture. New York: Vintage Books.
Kinder, D. R., & Sears, D. O. (1981). Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 414–431.
King, J. E. (1991). Dysconscious racism: Ideology, identity, and the miseducation of teachers. The Journal of Negro Education, 60(2), 133–146.
King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2005). A developmental model of intercultural maturity. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 571–592.
Kortenaar, N. (1993). Only connect: Anthills of the Savannah and Achebe’s trouble with Nigeria. Research in African Literatures, 24(3), 59–72.
Koulouri, C. (2001). The tyranny of history. In C. Koulouri (Ed.), Teaching the history of Southeastern Europe. Thessaloniki: Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeast Europe, Southeast European Joint History Project.
Ladson-Billings, G. J. (1999). Preparing teachers for diverse student populations: A critical race theory perspective. Review of Research in Education, 24, 211–247.
Leask, B., & Carroll, J. (2011). Moving beyond ‘wishing and hoping’: Internationalisation and student experiences of inclusion and engagement. Higher Education Research & Development, 30, 647–659.
Lee, I., & Koro-Ljunberg, M. K. (2007). A phenomenological study of Korean students’ acculturation in middle schools in the USA. Journal of Research in International Education, 6(1), 95–117.
MacDonald, J. (2006). The international school industry: Examining international schools through an economic lens. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 191–213.
Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. K. (2010). Intercultural communication in contexts. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Martinez de Morentin, J. I. (2011). Developing the concept of international education: Sixty years of UNESCO history. Prospects, 41, 597–611. doi:10.1007/s11125-011-9210-x.
Nesdale, D. (2002). The development of prejudice in children. In M. Augoustinos & K. J. Reynolds (Eds.), Understanding prejudice, racism and social conflict (pp. 57–72). London: Sage.
Neuman, W. (1994). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Nussbaum, M. (2010). Not for profit: Why democracy needs the humanities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Peri, P. (1999). Education and prejudice against immigrants. In L. Hagendoorn & S. Nekuee (Eds.), Education and racism: A cross national inventory of positive effects of education on ethnic tolerance (pp. 21–32). Aldershot: Ashgate.
Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 922–934.
Philippou, S. (2012). Official histories in Greek Cypriot geography and civics curricula. In Y. Papadakis & R. Bryant (Eds.), Cyprus and the politics of memory: History, community and conflict (pp. 51–70). London: I. B. Tauris.
Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.
Piaget, J., & Weil, A. M. (1951). The development in children of the idea of the homeland and of relations to other countries. International Social Science Journal, 3, 561–568.
Pingel, F. (1999). UNESCO guidebook on textbook research and textbook revision. Hannover: Hahn/UNESCO/Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research.
Pingel, F. (2000). The European home: Representations of 21st century Europe in history textbooks. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Plous, S. (2002). Understanding prejudice and discrimination. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Radke, M., & Sutherland, J. (1949). Children’s concepts and attitudes about minority and majority American groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 40, 449–468.
Remy, R. C., Nathan, J. A., Becker, J. M., & Torney, J. V. (1975). International learning and international education in a global age. Bulletin 47, National Council for the Social Studies, 39–40.
Roberts, B. (2009). Educating for global citizenship. Cardiff: International Baccalaureate.
Rokeach, M. (1960). The open and closed mind: Investigations into the nature of belief systems and personality systems. New York: Basic Books.
Rokeach, M. (1971). The measurement of values and value systems. In G. Abcarian (Ed.), Social psychology and political behavior (pp. 611–640). Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.
Rousseau, J. J. (1762). Emile ou de l’education [Emile, or on education]. Paris: Garnier.
Runciman, G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice: A study of attitudes to social inequality in twentieth-century Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sen, A. (2006). Identity and violence: The illusion of destiny. London: Allen Lane.
Sherif, M. (1966). Group conflict and co-operation: Their social psychology. London: Routledge.
Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R., & Sherif, C. W. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers Cave experiment. Norman, OK: University Book Exchange.
Simandiraki, A. (2006). International education and cultural heritage: Alliance or antagonism? Journal of Research in International Education, 5(1), 35–56.
Spitzberg, B. H., & Changnon, G. (2009). Conceptualizing intercultural competence. In D. Deardorff (Ed.), The Sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 2–52). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Stewart, M. S. (1950). Prejudice in textbooks. Public Affairs pamphlet no. 160. New York: Public Affairs Committee.
Tajfel, H. (1982). Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup behavior (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Tate, N. (2012). Challenges and pitfalls facing international education in a post-international world. Journal of Research in International Education, 11(3), 205–217.
Thouless, R. (1930). Straight and crooked thinking. London: Pan Books.
Understanding Prejudice (2002–2013). Project website. http://www.understandingprejudice.org/.
UNESCO (1990). Records of the General Conference, 25th Session, Volume 1: Resolutions. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0008/000846/084696e.pdf.
UNESCO (1995). Final report of International Conference on Education, 44th session, Geneva 3–8 October, 1994. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.
UNESCO (2006). UNESCO guidelines on intercultural education. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001478/147878e.pdf.
UWC [United World Colleges] (2013). Institutional website. http://www.uwc.org/.
Van Oord, L. (2008). After culture: Intergroup encounters in education. Journal of Research in Education, 7(2), 131–147.
Vivian, J., Brown, R., & Hewstone, M. (1995). Changing attitudes through intergroup contact: The effects of group membership salience. Unpublished manuscript. Wales: Universities of Kent and Cardiff.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language (translated and edited by A. Kozulin). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Walker, G. (2006). Educating the global citizen. Suffolk: John Catt.
Williams, R. (1961). Education and British society. In R. Williams (Ed.), The long revolution. London: Chatto & Windus.
Williams, J. E., & Morland, J. K. (1976). Race, color, and the young child. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Xu, S. (2001). Critical pedagogy and intercultural communication: Creating discourses of diversity, equality, common goals and rational-moral motivation. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 22, 279–293.
About this article
Cite this article
Hughes, C. How can international education help reduce students’ prejudice?. Prospects 44, 395–410 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-013-9291-9
- Intercultural competence
- International education
- The International Baccalaureate
- Psychoanalytical theories
- Sociological theories
- Cognitive development theories