, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 99–118 | Cite as

Integrating technology and pedagogy for inquiry-based learning: The Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment (SMILE)

  • Elizabeth BucknerEmail author
  • Paul Kim
Open File


Despite the long-standing interest in educational technology reforms, many researchers have found that it is difficult to incorporate advanced information and communications technologies (ICT) in classrooms. Many ICT projects, particularly in the developing world, are limited by the lack of integration between pedagogy and technology. This article presents a framework for integrating ICT technology and inquiry-based pedagogies in classroom settings: the Stanford Mobile Inquiry-based Learning Environment (SMILE). It then outlines findings from a series of studies that tested SMILE’s effectiveness in various country contexts. SMILE successfully spurs student questioning and changes student-teacher dynamics in class. On the other hand, school and country contexts influence students’ initial abilities to form deep inquiries, and SMILE is more difficult to implement in areas where rote memorization pedagogies are typical. The authors advocate further research on the effect of long-term interventions.


Mobile devices Mobile phones Technology ICT Student-inquiry Student-centered pedagogy 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.StanfordUSA

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