Advertisement

PROSPECTS

, 41:223 | Cite as

The role of social protection programmes in supporting education in conflict-affected situations

  • Rebecca HolmesEmail author
Open File

Abstract

This article examines the role of social protection in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. In recent years, social protection has gained popularity as a mechanism to reduce poverty and vulnerability, in part by enabling households to better access and use basic services as a result of increased household income. In conflict-affected countries the costs of accessing services are significant and the direct and indirect costs of sending children to school can be the most substantial factor contributing to children’s exclusion from education. While social protection has the potential to play an important role in supporting greater access to education through a variety of instruments, they have not been widely implemented and education remains a secondary objective in the majority of social protection programming. A number of institutional and implementation challenges must be overcome if social protection is to be effective in conflict-affected contexts.

Keywords

Social protection Education Conflict Cash for work School feeding programmes Conditional cash transfers Vouchers School subsidies, fee waivers and scholarships 

References

  1. Alghali, A. M., Turay, E., Thompson, E., & Kandeh, J. (2005, February). Education in Sierra Leone with particular reference to open and distance learning and information and communication technologies. Paper prepared for the Commonwealth of Learning (COL). http://www.col.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/05SierraLeone_EnviroScan.pdf.
  2. Ali, D., Toure, F., & Kiewied, T. (2005). Cash relief in a contested area: Lessons from Somalia. Humanitarian practice network paper. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Google Scholar
  3. Ayala, F. (2009). CCT pilot proposal. Nepal: United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF).Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, S. (2009). An independent evaluation of Concern Worldwide’s emergency response in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: Responding to displacement with vouchers and fairs. London: Humanitarian Policy Group, ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4195.pdf.
  5. Bird, K., & Higgins, K. (2009). Conflict, education and the intergenerational transmission of poverty in Northern Uganda. Project Briefing 23. London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=3696&title=conflict-education-poverty-transmission-uganda.
  6. Carlson, C., de Lamalle, J. P., Fustukian, S., Newell-Jones, K., Sibbons, M., & Sondorp, E. (2005). Improving the delivery of health and education services in difficult environments: Lessons from case studies. London: DFID Health Systems Resource Centre.Google Scholar
  7. Devereux, S., & Sabates-Wheeler, R. (2004). Transformative social protection. Working paper 232. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Dryden-Peterson, S. (2010). Barriers to accessing primary education in conflict-affected fragile states: Literature review. London: Save the Children Alliance. http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/Barriers_to_access_Literature_Review_Final.pdf.
  9. Duffield, M. et al. (2000). The unintended consequences of humanitarian action. Field evaluation study: Report to the European Community Humanitarian Office. University of Dublin, Trinity College.Google Scholar
  10. Ellis, F. (2008, September). We are all poor here: Economic difference, social divisiveness, and targeting cash transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa. Paper presented at Conference on Social Protection for the Poorest in Africa: Learning from Experience, Entebbe, Uganda. http://www.uea.ac.uk/polopoly_fs/1.87456!/fe-paper-sp-sept2008.pdf.
  11. Fredriksen, B. (2009). Rationale, issues, and conditions for sustaining the abolition of school fees. In The World Bank and UNICEF (Ed.), Abolishing school fees in Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Mozambique (pp. 1–44). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  12. Gilligan, D. (2009, September). School feeding programmes: Evidence and policy lessons. Presentation at International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) seminar, Washington, DC. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/DGilliganppt.pdf.
  13. Guluma, Y. (2004). Studies on alternatives to food aid—case study DRC: Cash for work projects. London: Save the Children.Google Scholar
  14. Hart, J. (2009). Commonwealth Education Fund final report. London: Commonwealth Education Fund. http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/learning/education/downloads/Commonwealth%20Education%20Fund%20Final%20Report.pdf.
  15. Harvey, P. (2005). Cash and vouchers in emergencies. HPG Discussion paper. London: ODI.Google Scholar
  16. Harvey, P., & Holmes, R. (2007). The potential for joint programmes for long-term cash transfers in unstable situations. Report commissioned by the Fragile States Team and the Equity and Rights Team of DFID. London: Humanitarian Policy Group, ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/218.pdf.
  17. Harvey, P., Holmes, R., Slater, R., & Martin, E. (2007). Social protection in fragile states. Paper prepared for OECD DAC Povnet. London: ODI.Google Scholar
  18. Holmes, R. (2009). Cash transfers in post-conflict contexts. Project Briefing 32. London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3507.pdf.
  19. Holmes, R., & Jackson, A. (2007). Cash transfers in Sierra Leone: Are they appropriate, affordable and feasible? Project briefing 8. London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3163.pdf.
  20. Holmes, R., & Jones, N. (2009). Putting the social back into social protection: A framework for understanding the linkages between economic and social risks for poverty reduction. Background note. London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3286.pdf.
  21. Holmes, R., & Upadhya, S. (2009). The role of cash transfers in post-conflict Nepal. London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4690.pdf.
  22. IDMC [Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre] (2009). Internal displacement: Global overview of trends and developments in 2008. Geneva: IDMC and Norwegian Refugee Council.Google Scholar
  23. Jones, N. (2009). Promoting synergies between child protection and social protection: West and Central Africa. Briefing paper. London: ODI/UNICEF. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=3477&title=child-protection-social-protection-west-central-africa.
  24. Khogali, H., & Takhar, P. (2001). Evaluation of Oxfam GB cash for work programme, Kitgum/Pader District, Uganda. Oxford: Oxfam GB.Google Scholar
  25. Lawrence, C. (2006). Report on basic education in Sierra Leone. Freetown: Sierra Leone Campaign for Good Governance (SLCGG). http://slcgg.org/3_Resources_Documents/A_Reports/Basic%20Education%20Report.doc.
  26. Machel, G. (1996). Promotion and protection of the rights of children: Impact of armed conflict on children. New York: UN. http://www.un.org/children/conflict/_documents/machel/MachelReviewReport.pdf.
  27. McClean, C., et al. (2001). Oxfam mid-term review of eastern kitgum emergencies livelihoods protection project (cash for work). Oxford: Oxfam GB.Google Scholar
  28. Meir, U. (2005). Why school feeding works. Forced migration review, 22, 35–36. Special issue on Education in emergencies: Learning for a peaceful future. http://www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR22/FMR22full.pdf.
  29. Pavanello, S., & Othieno, T. (2008). Improving the provision of basic services for the poor in fragile environments. Education sector international literature review, prepared for the AusAID Office of Development Effectiveness (ODE). London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/2755.pdf.
  30. Slater, R., & Farrington, J. (2009). Appropriate, achievable, acceptable: A practical tool for good targeting. Social protection toolsheet targeting social transfers. London: ODI. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4697.pdf.
  31. Sommers, M. (2005). Islands of education: Schooling, civil war and the Southern Sudanese (1983–2004). Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  32. UIS [UNESCO Institute of Statistics] (2005). Children out of school: Measuring exclusion from primary education. Montreal: UNESCO Institute of Statistics. http://www.uis.unesco.org/template/pdf/educgeneral/OOSC_EN_WEB_FINAL.pdf.
  33. UNESCO (2001). Education in situations of emergency and crisis: Challenges for the new century. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001323/132305e.pdf.
  34. UNHCR [United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees] (2007). Education strategy, 2007–2009: Policy, challenges and objectives. Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  35. USDA [United States Department of Agriculture] (2003). The global food for education pilot program: A review of project implementation and impact. Washington, DC: USDA.Google Scholar
  36. Vaux, T., & Visman, E. (2005). Service delivery in countries emerging from conflict. London: DFID.Google Scholar
  37. WFP [World Food Programme] (2008). Draft school feeding policy: A hunger safety net that supports learning, health and community development. Rome: WFP.Google Scholar
  38. World Bank (2007). Education statistics database. Washington, DC: World Bank Education and Development Data Groups. www.worldbank.org/education/edstats.
  39. World Bank (2009). IDA at work: Afghanistan. Promoting community-based development. http://go.worldbank.org/H96XFPJWB0.
  40. World Bank (2010, May). Our goal: Education for All in Haiti. http://go.worldbank.org/UTZK783TN0.

Copyright information

© UNESCO IBE 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Overseas Development InstituteLondonUK

Personalised recommendations