Predictors of Group Leaders’ Perceptions of Parents’ Initial and Dynamic Engagement in a Family Preventive Intervention

Abstract

Attendance and participant engagement are two consistent predictors of the efficacy of preventive interventions. Although both are typically measured and analyzed as static factors, evidence indicates patterns of attendance and participant engagement change over the course of intervention. Understanding parent characteristics that predict engagement may inform strategies to maximize parents’ involvement thereby increasing intervention uptake and improving effects. This study examined whether parents’ baseline characteristics predicted their engagement in a family-based intervention. The study was conducted with 515 caregivers participating in a randomized comparative trial testing the efficacy of The Mindfulness-Enhanced Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (MSFP 10-14) and The Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14). Facilitator ratings were used to measure parent engagement. Results indicated generally high levels of initial engagement with small, but a significant linear increase across the intervention. Parental education level and involvement with their youth predicted engagement in the first session, while parents’ marital/relationship status, avoidance of conflict with their youth, involvement with their youth, and perceived parent-youth relationship quality at baseline predicted change in engagement. Results highlight engagement as a dynamic construct that changes over time and indicates potential variables that may help identify parents that may need support engaging in this intervention.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1994). Child behavior checklist and related instruments. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment (pp. 517–549). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Baker, C. N., Arnold, D. H., & Meagher, S. (2011). Enrollment and attendance in a parent training prevention program for conduct problems. Prevention Science, 12, 126–138. doi:10.1007/s11121-010-0187-0.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Bamberger, K. T. (2016). The application of intensive longitudinal methods to investigate change: Stimulating the field of applied family research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 19, 21–38. doi:10.1007/s10567-015-0194-6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  4. Bamberger, K.T., & Coatsworth, J.D. (2013). An expanded conceptual model of participant engagement for prevention and intervention research. Poster presented at the Society for Prevention Research 21st Annual Conference in San Francisco, CA. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2005.4880

  5. Bamberger, K., Coatsworth, J. D., Fosco, G. M., & Ram, N. (2014). Change in participant engagement during a family-based preventive intervention: Ups and downs with time and tension. Journal of Family Psychology, 28, 811–820.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Baydar, N., Reid, M. J., & Webster-Stratton, C. (2003). The role of mental health factors and program engagement in the effectiveness of a preventive parenting program for head start mothers. Child Development, 74, 1433–1453.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Berkel, C., Mauricio, A. M., Schoenfelder, E., & Sandler, I. N. (2011). Putting the pieces together: An integrated model of program implementation. Prevention Science, 12, 23–33.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Chen, Y.-F., Kogan, S. M., & Brown, A. C. (2006). Effects of family risk factors on dosage and efficacy of a family-centered preventive intervention for rural African Americans. Prevention Science, 7, 281–291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sage focus editions, 154, 136–136.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Clarke, A. T., Marshall, S. A., Mautone, J. A., Soffer, S. L., Jones, H. A., Costigan, T. E., et al. (2015). Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 58–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2006). Patterns of retention in a preventive intervention with ethnic minority families. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 27, 171–193.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Gayles, J. G., Bamberger, K. T., et al. (2015). Integrating mindfulness with parent training: Effects of the mindfulness-enhanced strengthening families program. Developmental Psychology, 51, 26–35.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Dishion, T. J., & Kavanagh, K. (2003). Intervening in adolescent problem behavior: A family-centered approach (p. 2003). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Dishion T. J., & Snyder, J. J. (2015). The Oxford handbook of coercive relationship dynamics. New York: Oxford University Press

  16. Dumas, J. E., Nissley-Tsiopinis, J., & Moreland, A. D. (2007). From intent to enrollment, attendance, and participation in preventive parenting groups. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 1–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Duncan, L. G., Coatsworth, J. D., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). A model of mindful parenting: Implications for parent-child relationships and prevention research. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12, 255–270. doi:10.1007/s10567-009-0046-3.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Durlak, J., & DuPre, E. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327–350.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Glasgow, R. E., Klesges, L. M., Dzewaltowski, D. A., Bull, S. S., & Estabrooks, P. (2004). The future of health behavior change research: What is needed to improve translation of research into health promotion practice? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 3–12.

  20. Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P. H., Henry, D. B., & Leventhal. (2002). Predictors of participation in a family-focused preventive intervention for substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 55–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gross, D., Julion, W., & Fogg, L. (2001). What motivates participation and dropout among low-income urban families of color in a prevention intervention? Family Relations, 50, 246–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Haggerty, K. P., MacKenzie, E. P., Skinner, M. L., Harachi, T. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2006). Participation in “Parents Who Care”: Predicting program initiation and exposure in two different program formats. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 27(1), 47–65.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Haine-Schlagel, R., & Walsh, N. E. (2015). A review of parent participation in engagement in child and family mental health treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychological Review, 18, 133–150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Kazdin, A. E., Mazurick, J. L., & Bass, D. (1993). Risk for attrition in treatment of antisocial children and families. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 2–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Mauricio, A. M., Tien, J.-Y., Gonzalez, N. A., Millsap, R. E., Dumka, L. A., & Berkel, K. (2014). Participation patterns among Mexican-American parents enrolled in a universal intervention and their association with child externalizing outcomes American Journal of Community Psychology, 54, 370–383.

  27. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (1991). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Molgaard, V., Kumpfer, K. L., & Fleming, E. (2001). The Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14; a video-based curriculum. Ames: Iowa State University Extension.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class/latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins, & A. Sayer (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291–322). Washington, DC: APA.

  30. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2015). Mplus User’s Guide. Seventh Edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

  31. Nix, R. L., Bierman, K. L., McMahon, R. J., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2009). How attendance and quality of participation affect treatment response to parent management training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 429–438. doi:10.1037/a0015028.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Patterson, G., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). A functional analysis of resistance during parent training therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1, 53–70.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Prado, G., Pantin, H., Schwartz, S. J., Lupei, N. S., & Szapocznik, J. (2006). Predictors of engagement and retention into a parent-centered, ecodevelopmental HIV preventive intervention for Hispanic adolescents and their families. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 874–890.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population? Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Redmond, C., Spoth, R. L., Shin, C., Schainker, L. M., Greenberg, M. T., & Feinberg, M. (2009). Long-term protective factor outcome of evidence-based interventions implemented by community teams through a community-university partnership. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 513–530.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Robbins, M. S., Liddle, H. A., Turner, C. W., Dakof, G. A., Alexander, J. F., & Kogan, S. M. (2006). Adolescent and parent therapeutic alliances as predictors of dropout in multidimensional family therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 108–116.

  37. Schoenfelder, E. N., Sandler, I. N., Millsap, R. E., Wolchik, S. A., Berkel, C., & Ayers, T. S. (2013). Caregiver responsiveness to the Family Bereavement Program: What predicts responsiveness? What does responsiveness predict? Prevention Science, 14, 545–556.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Spoth, R. (2008). Translating family-focused prevention science into effective practice: Toward a translational impact paradigm. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 415–421.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Spoth, R., & Redmond, C. (2000). Research on family engagement in preventive interventions: Toward improved use of scientific findings in primary prevention practice. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 21, 267–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Spoth R., Rohrbach L., Greenberg M., Leaf P., Brown C.H., Fagan, A., & the Society for Prevention Research Type 2 Translational Task Force Members. (2013). Addressing core challenges for the next generation of type 2 translation research and systems: The translation science to population impact (TSci Impact) framework. Prevention Science 14, 319–351.

  41. Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Mason, W. A., Schainker, L., & Borduin, L. (2015). Research on the Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10-14: Long-term effects, mechanisms, translation to public health, PROSPER partnership scale up. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of Drug prevention: Research, intervention strategies, and practice (pp. 267–292). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Winslow, E., Bonds, D., Wolchik, S., Sandler, I., & Braver, S. (2009). Predictors of enrollment and retention in a preventive parenting intervention for divorced families. The Journal of Primary Prevention., 30, 151–172.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. Douglas Coatsworth.

Ethics declarations

This project was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse through a grant (R01DA026217) awarded to the first author. The second author’s efforts are facilitated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse through a training grant (F31DA038409).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate

Pennsylvania State University’s IRB approved this study. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Coatsworth, J., Hemady, K.T. & George, M.W. Predictors of Group Leaders’ Perceptions of Parents’ Initial and Dynamic Engagement in a Family Preventive Intervention. Prev Sci 19, 609–619 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0781-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Participant engagement
  • Participation
  • Parent training
  • Prevention program
  • Intervention impact