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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios (and 95 % confidence intervals) from multiple logistic regression analysis of associations between program exposure and positive parenting, parent-child interaction, attitudes toward physical punishment, confidence in using nonviolent discipline, and physical punishment at end line (n = 435) and long-term follow-up (LTFU) (n = 399)

From: Evaluation of the Responsible, Engaged, and Loving (REAL) Fathers Initiative on Physical Child Punishment and Intimate Partner Violence in Northern Uganda

  Positive parenting Parent-child interaction Rejects use of physical discipline Confident in using nonviolent discipline Physical punishment
End line LTFU End line LTFU End line LTFU End line LTFU End line LTFU
Attended at least one individual and one group mentoring session (ref did not attend) 1.6 (1.01, 2.63)* 1.1 (0.65, 1.96) 2.1 (1.05, 4.33)* 2.9 (1.48, 6.01)** 1.6 (1.09, 2.49)** 2.2 (1.43, 3.47)*** 2.5 (1.50, 4.28)*** 2.4 (1.55, 3.98)*** 0.84 (0.55, 1.28) 0.52 (0.32, 0.82)**
Employment (ref farming)
Works for employer
Self-employed
Does not work/other
2.2 (0.85, 5.81) 3.1 (0.87, 1.38) 0.5 (0.19, 1.55) 1.5 (0.44, 5.61) 1.1 (0.57, 2.42) 0.8 (0.88, 1.78) 1.17 (0.53, 2.59) 1.7 (0.83, 3.84) 0.96 (0.47, 3.00) 1.4. (0.66, 3.18)
Partial/full payment of bride price (ref no payment) 0.9 (0.56, 1.52) 1.1 (0.65, 2.19) 0.8 (0.37, 1.69) 1.0 (0.48, 2.31) 1.2 (0.81, 1.88) 0.45 (0.26, 0.76)** 0.82 (0.51, 1.34) 0.90 (0.55, 1.49) 1.9 (1.29, 3.00)** 5.6 (3.23, 9.82)***
Couple communication (ref none) 3.2 (1.96, 5.23)*** 2.5 (1.43, 4.50)*** 2.0 (1.01, 4.23)* 1.0 (0.67, 2.74) 1.3 (0.84, 2.09) 1.7 (1.07, 2.75)* 0.9 (0.56, 1.65) 2.2 (1.34, 3.80)** 0.6 (0.42, 1.07) 0.6 (0.40, 1.08)
Alcohol use in past month (ref never/no drinking)
2 days or less
More than 2 days
0.5 (0.34, 1.01)
0.8 (0.42, 1.51)
0.5 (0.27, 1.01)
0.4 (0.24, 0.91)*
1.1 (0.53, 2.55)
1.3 (0.54, 3.45)
0.6, (0.28, 1.33)
0.8 (0.38, 1.95)
1.3 (0.87, 2.17)
1.2 (0.74, 2.15)
1.0 (0.62, 1.76)
0.4 (0.24, 0.72)**
0.8 (0.52, 1.51)
1.0 (0.58, 1.99)
1.5 (0.91, 2.51)
0.6 (0.38, 1.22)
0.9 (0.60, 1.49)
1.0 (0.60, 1.75)
0.5 (0.35, 1.02)
1.0 (0.62, 1.87)
Threatened with physical violence often/sometimes (ref never) 1.9 (1.15, 3.44)* 6.4 (3.34, 12.51)*** 1.0 (0.49, 2.43) 0.8 (0.33, 2.16) 0.67 (0.40, 1.10) 0.4 (0.26, 0.92)* 0.67 (0.38, 1.16) 1.0 (0.57, 1.95) 1.8 (1.12, 2.97)** 2.0 (1.09, 3.78)*
Experienced physical punishment often/sometimes (ref never) 0.4 (0.19, 1.07) 0.11 (0.04, 0.33)*** 1.4 (0.52, 4.00) 4.8 (1.72, 13.85)** 0.6 (0.34, 1.39) 0.5 (0.24, 1.27) 0.6 (0.30, 1.52) 1.0 (0.48, 2.28) 1.3 (0.70, 2.66) 2.5 (1.14, 5.80)*
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001