Prevention Science

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 743–750 | Cite as

Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior

  • Arielle S. Selya
  • Lisa Dierker
  • Jennifer S. Rose
  • Donald Hedeker
  • Robin J. Mermelstein
Article

Abstract

Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (<100 cigarettes/lifetime; N = 594) and light (100+ cigarettes/lifetime, but ≤5 cigarettes/day; N = 152) adolescent smokers. Time-varying effect models were used to examine the relationship between baseline nicotine dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (<16), but stronger at older ages (20–23), relative to light smokers. Additionally, nicotine dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5–16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression.

Keywords

Adolescents Nicotine dependence Smoking Time-varying effect models 

References

  1. Anderson, C. M., Burns, D. M., Dodd, K. W., & Feuer, E. J. (2012). Chapter 2: Birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors for the U.S. population. Risk Analysis, 32, S14–24. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01703.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Center for Disease Control (2002). Cigarette smoking among adults- United States, 2000 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Vol. 51, pp. 642–645).Google Scholar
  3. Clark, D. B., Wood, D. S., Martin, C. S., Cornelius, J. R., Lynch, K. G., & Shiffman, S. (2005). Multidimensional assessment of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 77, 235–242. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.08.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dierker, L., & Mermelstein, R. (2010). Early emerging nicotine-dependence symptoms: A signal of propensity for chronic smoking behavior in adolescents. The Journal of Pediatrics, 156, 818–822. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.11.044.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Dierker, L., Hedeker, D., Rose, J., Selya, A., & Mermelstein, R. (2015). Early emerging nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescence predict daily smoking in young adulthood. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 151, 267–271. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DiFranza, J. R., Rigotti, N. A., McNeill, A. D., Ockene, J. K., Savageau, J. A., St Cyr, D., & Coleman, M. (2000). Initial symptoms of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Tobacco Control, 9, 313–319. doi:10.1136/tc.9.3.313.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. DiFranza, J. R., Savageau, J. A., Rigotti, N. A., Fletcher, K., Ockene, J. K., McNeill, A. D., & Wood, C. (2002). Development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30 month follow up data from the DANDY study. Tobacco Control, 11, 228–235. doi:10.1136/tc.11.3.228.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. DiFranza, J. R., Wellman, R. J., Mermelstein, R., Pbert, L., Klein, J. D., Sargent, J. D., & Winickoff, J. P. (2011). The natural history and diagnosis of nicotine addiction. Current Pediatric Reviews, 7, 88–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doubeni, C. A., Reed, G., & Difranza, J. R. (2010). Early course of nicotine dependence in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics, 125, 1127–1133. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0238.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu, M. C., Griesler, P. C., Wall, M. M., & Kandel, D. B. (2014). Reciprocal associations between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence criteria in adolescent smokers. Addiction, 109, 1518–1528. doi:10.1111/add.12619.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Jefferis, B., Graham, H., Manor, O., & Power, C. (2003). Cigarette consumption and socio-economic circumstances in adolescence as predictors of adult smoking. Addiction, 98, 1765–1772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Mercincavage, M., Branstetter, S. A., Muscat, J. E., & Horn, K. A. (2013). Time to first cigarette predicts cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15, 1996–2004. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. O'Loughlin, J., DiFranza, J., Tyndale, R. F., Meshefedjian, G., McMillan-Davey, E., Clarke, P. B., & Paradis, G. (2003). Nicotine-dependence symptoms are associated with smoking frequency in adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25, 219–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Rath, J. M., Villanti, A. C., Abrams, D. B., & Vallone, D. M. (2012). Patterns of tobacco use and dual use in US young adults: The missing link between youth prevention and adult cessation. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, 679134. doi:10.1155/2012/679134.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Selya, A. S., Dierker, L. C., Rose, J. S., Hedeker, D., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2012a). Risk factors for adolescent smoking: Parental smoking and the mediating role of nicotine dependence. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.02.004.Google Scholar
  16. Selya, A. S., Dierker, L. C., Rose, J. S., Hedeker, D., Tan, X., Li, R., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2012b). Time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on adolescent smoking regularity. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.08.026.Google Scholar
  17. Selya, A. S., Wakschlag, L. S., Dierker, L. C., Rose, J. S., Hedeker, D., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2013). Exploring alternate processes contributing to the association between maternal smoking and the smoking behavior among young adult offspring. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15, 1873–1882. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shiffman, S., Waters, A., & Hickcox, M. (2004). The nicotine dependence syndrome scale: A multidimensional measure of nicotine dependence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, 327–348. doi:10.1080/1462220042000202481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sterling, K. L., Mermelstein, R., Turner, L., Diviak, K., Flay, B., & Shiffman, S. (2009). Examining the psychometric properties and predictive validity of a youth-specific version of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) among teens with varying levels of smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 616–619. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.03.016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Tan, X., Shiyko, M. P., Li, R., Li, Y., & Dierker, L. (2012). A time-varying effect model for intensive longitudinal data. Psychological Methods, 17, 61–77. doi:10.1037/a0025814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. The Methodology Center (2015). TVEM SAS Macro Suite (Version 3.1.0) [Software]. University Park: The Methodology Center, Penn State. Retrieved from http://methodology.psu.edu
  22. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2014). The Health Consequences of Smoking - 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.Google Scholar
  23. Wickham, H. (2009). ggplot2: Elegant graphics for data analysis. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arielle S. Selya
    • 1
  • Lisa Dierker
    • 2
  • Jennifer S. Rose
    • 2
  • Donald Hedeker
    • 3
  • Robin J. Mermelstein
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Population HealthUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentWesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA
  3. 3.Department of Public Health SciencesUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Institute for Health Research and PolicyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations