Advertisement

Prevention Science

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 615–625 | Cite as

Reducing Children’s Susceptibility to Alcohol Use: Effects of a Home-Based Parenting Program

  • Christine Jackson
  • Susan T. Ennett
  • H. Luz McNaughton Reyes
  • Kim A. Hayes
  • Denise M. Dickinson
  • Seulki Choi
  • J. Michael Bowling
Article

Abstract

This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children’s cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; mean age of 9.2 years at baseline) completed telephone interviews prior to randomization and follow-up interviews 12, 24, 36, and 48 months post-baseline. Mothers of children randomized to treatment received a 5-month-long parenting program during year 1, followed by two 1-month-long boosters in years 2 and 3. Exposure to the program was significantly inversely associated with susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline (b = −0.03, p = .04), with no variation in program effects by parental alcohol use or mother’s race/ethnicity or education, suggesting broad public health relevance of the parenting program. Path analyses of simple indirect effects through each hypothesized mediator showed that program exposure positively influenced parental communication to counter pro-drinking influences in the family and media domains and parental rule setting 36 months post-baseline; these variables, in turn, predicted reduced susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline. Parallel (multiple) mediation analysis showed that the program had a significant indirect effect on susceptibility through parental rule setting. Together, the findings indicate that internalization of protective alcohol-related expectancies and intentions is possible among children whose mothers provide early exposure to alcohol-specific socialization. Additional research is needed to link alcohol-specific socialization during childhood with adolescent drinking outcomes.

Keywords

Parenting Child Susceptibility Alcohol 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Grant No. R01AA016300 (Christine Jackson, PI).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., Barckley, M., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. X. (2008). The effect of early cognitions on cigarette and alcohol use during adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 96–106. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.22.1.96.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Cranford, J. A., Zucker, R. A., Jester, J. M., Puttler, L. I., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (2010). Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 386–396. doi: 10.1037/a0019801.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as context: An integrative model. Child Development, 113, 487–496. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487.Google Scholar
  4. Dickinson, D. M., Hayes, K., Jackson, C., Ennett, S. T., & Lawson, C. (2014). Promoting an alcohol-free childhood: A novel home-based parenting program. American Journal of Health Education, 45, 119–128. doi: 10.1080/19325037.2013.875963.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Donovan, J. E. (2007). Really underage drinkers: The epidemiology of children’s alcohol use in the United States. Prevention Science, 8, 192–205. doi: 10.1007/s11121-007-0072-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Donovan, J. E., & Molina, B. S. G. (2008). Children’s introduction to alcohol use: Sips and tastes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 108–119. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00565.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Ennett, S. T., Bauman, K. E., Foshee, V. A., Pemberton, M., & Hicks, K. A. (2001). Parent–child communication about adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: What do parents say and does it affect youth behavior? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 48–62. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00048.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ennett, S. T., Jackson, C., Bowling, J. M., & Dickinson, D. M. (2013). Parental socialization and children’s susceptibility to alcohol use initiation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74, 694–702. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2013.74.694.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Fairchild, H. J., & Mackinnon, D. P. (2009). A general model for testing mediation and moderation effects. Prevention Science, 10, 87–99. doi: 10.1007/s11121-008-0109-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D. F. (2008). Excavating culture: Ethnicity and context as predictors of parenting behavior. Applied Developmental Science, 12, 188–197. doi: 10.1080/10888690802388110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jackson, C. (1997). Initial and experimental stages of tobacco and alcohol use during late childhood: Relation to peer, parent and personal risk factors. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 685–698. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(97)00005-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jackson, C. (1998). Cognitive susceptibility to smoking and initiation of smoking during childhood: A longitudinal study. Preventive Medicine, 27, 129–134. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1997.0255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jackson, C., Ennett, S. T., Dickinson, D. M., & Bowling, J. M. (2012). Letting children sip: Understanding why parents allow alcohol use by elementary school-aged children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166, 1053–1057. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnson, H. L., & Johnson, P. B. (1995). Children’s alcohol-related cognitions—positive versus negative alcohol effects. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 40, 1–12.Google Scholar
  17. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2011). Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2010. Volume I: Secondary school students. Washington DC: Government Printing Office (NIH Publication No. 04–5507).Google Scholar
  18. MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3901_4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Masten, A. S., Faden, V. B., Zucker, R. A., & Spear, L. P. (2008). Underage drinking: A developmental framework. Pediatrics, 121, S235–S251. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2243A.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2015). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  22. Pierce, J. P., Choi, W. S., Gilpin, E. A., Farkas, A. J., & Merritt, R. K. (1996). Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health Psychology, 15, 355–361. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.15.5.355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Prado, G., Pantin, H., & Estrada, Y. (2015). Integrating evidence-based interventions for adolescents into primary care. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48, 488–490. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.11.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. In A. F. Hayes, M. D. Slater, & A. F. Snyder (Eds.), Advance data analysis methods for communication research (pp. 13–54). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Reimuller, A., Hussong, A., & Ennett, S. T. (2011). The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Prevention Science, 12, 389–400. doi: 10.1007/s11121-011-0227-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177. doi: 10.1037//1082-989X.7.2.147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Sobell, L., & Sobell, M. (2003). Alcohol consumption measures (NIH Publication No. 03–3745). In J. Allen & V. Wilson (Eds.), Assessing alcohol problems: A guide for clinicians and researchers (2nd ed., pp. 75–100). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  28. Strasburger, V. C., & Wilson, B. J. (2002). Children, adolescents and the media. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  29. Thomas, R. E., Baker, P. R. A., Thomas, B. C., & Lorenzetti, D. L. (2015). Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.thecochranelibrary.com.
  30. U.S. Census Bureau. (2012). State and county quick facts. Retrieved from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/37000.html.
  31. Vella, J. (2002). Learning to listen, learning to teach: The power of dialogue in educating adults. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Warner, L. A., & White, H. R. (2003). Longitudinal effects of age at onset and first drinking situations on problem drinking. Substance Use & Misuse, 38, 1983–2016. doi: 10.1081/JA-120025123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zucker, R. A., Donovan, J. E., Masten, A. S., Mattson, M. E., & Moss, H. B. (2008). Early developmental processes and the continuity of risk for underage drinking and problem drinking. Pediatrics, 121, S252–S272. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2243B.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Jackson
    • 1
  • Susan T. Ennett
    • 2
  • H. Luz McNaughton Reyes
    • 2
  • Kim A. Hayes
    • 1
  • Denise M. Dickinson
    • 1
  • Seulki Choi
    • 2
  • J. Michael Bowling
    • 2
  1. 1.RTI InternationalDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health BehaviorThe University of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations