The Enduring Impact of Parents’ Monitoring, Warmth, Expectancies, and Alcohol Use on Their Children’s Future Binge Drinking and Arrests: a Longitudinal Analysis

Abstract

Binge drinking is associated with many health and financial costs and is linked to risks of legal consequences. As alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, the current study assessed the relationship between parental behaviors and strategies in forecasting adolescents’ likelihood of binge drinking and later arrest. Restricted data from waves I–IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to assess hypotheses. A weighted path analytic model (N = 9421) provided a multifaceted picture of variables linked to later antisocial behavior. Low parental monitoring, low parental warmth, parent alcohol use, and parent expectancies regarding their children’s alcohol use were associated with higher incidence of adolescent binge drinking. In turn, low monitoring, low warmth, parent alcohol use, parent expectancies, and underage consumption were associated with binge drinking in early adulthood. Binge drinking during both adolescence and young adulthood were predictive of respondents’ likelihood of arrest 8–14 years later. Findings demonstrated the substantial, enduring effects of parental behaviors on child alcohol-related actions and have implications for parent-targeted interventions designed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. They suggest campaigns focus on parenting strategies that involve setting effective and strict alcohol-related rules and guidelines, while maintaining a warm and supportive family environment.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    More details on the Add Health study design are provided on their website, http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/design

  2. 2.

    User-written Stata programs for scaling sampling weights to estimate two-level models can be downloaded from the following website: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/research/tools/data_analysis/ml_sampling_weights

References

  1. Aunola, K., Ruusunen, A.-K., Viljaranta, J., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2015). Parental affection and psychological control as mediators between parents’ depressive symptoms and child distress. Journal of Family Issues, 36, 1022–1042. doi:10.1177/0192513X13494825.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Johnston, L. D., Schulenberg, J. E., & Wallace, J. M., Jr. (2011). Racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between parental education and substance use among U.S. 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students: Findings from the monitoring the future project. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 179–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Barber, B. K., & Harmon, E. L. (2002). Violating the self: Parental psychological control of children and adolescents. In B. K. Barber & B. K. Barber (Eds.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 15–52). Washington: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  4. Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., & Hoffman, J. H. (2002). Relationship of alcohol use to delinquency and illicit drug use in adolescents: Gender, age, and racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Drug Issues, 32, 153–178.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baumrind, D. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth & Society, 9, 239–276.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238–246.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bersamin, M., Paschall, M. J., & Flewelling, R. L. (2005). Ethnic differences in relationships between risk factors and adolescent binge drinking: A national study. Prevention Science, 6, 127–137. doi:10.1007/s11121-005-3411-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Brame, R., Turner, M. G., Paternoster, R., & Bushway, S. D. (2012). Cumulative prevalence of arrest from ages 8 to 23 in a national sample. Pediatrics, 129, 21–27.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Center for Disease Control. (2012). Vital signs: Binge drinking prevalence, frequency, and intensity among adults-united states. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61, 14–19.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chantala, K., Kalsbeek, W. D., & Andraca, E. (2004). Non-response in wave iii of the add health study (pp. 1–17). Chapel Hill: Carolina Population Center.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Chawla, N., Neighbors, C., Logan, D., Lewis, M. A., & Fossos, N. (2009). Perceived approval of friends and parents as mediators of the relationship between self-determination and drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 92–100.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Chen, P., & Chantala, K. (2014). Guidelines for analyzing add health data. Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  13. Cornelius, M. D., Leech, S. L., & Goldschmidt, L. (2004). Characteristics of persistent smoking among pregnant teenagers followed to young adulthood. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 159–169. doi:10.1080/14622200310001656975.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Crano, W. D., Siegel, J. T., Alvaro, E. M., & Patel, N. M. (2007). Overcoming adolescents’ resistance to anti-inhalant appeals. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21, 516–524.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Crano, W. D., Siegel, J. T., Alvaro, E. M., Lac, A., & Hemovich, V. (2008). The at-risk adolescent marijuana nonuser: Expanding the standard distinction. Prevention Science, 9, 129–137.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Crano, W. D., Brewer, M. B., & Lac, A. (2015). Principles and methods of social research (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  17. de Looze, M., van den Eijnden, R., Verdurmen, J., Vermeulen-Smit, E., Schulten, I., Vollebergh, W., & ter Bogt, T. (2012). Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: Rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut. Prevention Science, 13, 594–604. doi:10.1007/s11121-012-0286-1.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior in youth. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 719–788). Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Donaldson, C. D., Nakawaki, B., & Crano, W. D. (2015). Variations in parental monitoring and predictions of adolescent prescription opioid and stimulant misuse. Addictive Behaviors, 45, 14–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Donaldson, C. D., Siegel, J. T., Crano, W. D. (2016). Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in college students: Attitudes, intentions, and vested interest. Addictive Behaviors, 1-27. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.10.007.

  21. Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 1244-1257.

  22. Ennett, S. T., Jackson, C., Bowling, J. M., & Dickinson, D. M. (2013). Parental socialization and children’s susceptibility to alcohol use initiation. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74, 694–702. doi: 10.15288/jsad.2013.74.694.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Foster, C., Caravelis, C., & Kopak, A. (2014). National college health assessment measuring negative alcohol-related consequences among college students. American Journal of Public Health Research, 2, 1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Gere, M. K., Villabø, M. A., Torgersen, S., & Kendall, P. C. (2012). Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: The role of co-occurring child behavior problems. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 642–649. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2012.04.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Glatz, T., & Koning, I. M. (2015). The outcomes of an alcohol prevention program on parents’ rule setting and self-efficacy: a bidirectional model. Prevention Science, 17, 377–385.

  26. Greenfield, T. K., & Weisner, C. (1995). Drinking problems and self-reported criminal behavior, arrests and convictions: 1990 us alcohol and 1989 county surveys. Addiction, 90, 361–373.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Guilamo-Ramos, V., Jaccard, J., Turrisi, R., & Johansson, M. (2005). Parental and school correlates of binge drinking among middle school students. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 894–899.

  28. Hemovich, V., Lac, A., & Crano, W. D. (2011). Understanding early-onset drug and alcohol outcomes among youth: The role of family structure, social factors, and interpersonal perceptions of use. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 16, 249–267. doi:10.1080/13548506.2010.532560.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Henggeler, S. W., McKee, E., & Borduin, C. M. (1989). Is there a link between maternal neglect and adolescent delinquency? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 242–246. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp1803_7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Joussemet, M., Landry, R., & Koestner, R. (2008). A self-determination theory perspective on parenting. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49, 194–200. doi:10.1037/a0012754.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2000). What parents know, how they know it, and several forms of adolescent adjustment: Further support for a reinterpretation of monitoring. Developmental Psychology, 36, 366–380. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.36.3.366.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Komro, K. A., Maldonado-Molina, M. M., Tobler, A. L., Bonds, J. R., & Muller, K. E. (2007). Effects of home access and availability of alcohol on young adolescents’ alcohol use. Addiction, 102, 1597–1608. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01941.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Lac, A., & Crano, W. D. (2009). Monitoring matters: Meta-analytic review reveals the reliable linkage of parental monitoring with adolescent marijuana use. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 578–586. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01166.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Lac, A., Alvaro, E. M., Crano, W. D., & Siegel, J. T. (2009). Pathways from parental knowledge and warmth to adolescent marijuana use: An extension to the theory of planned behavior. Prevention Science, 10, 22–32. doi:10.1007/s11121-008-0111-z.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Lamb, C. S., & Crano, W. D. (2014). Parents’ beliefs and children’s marijuana use: Evidence for a self-fulfilling prophecy effect. Addictive Behaviors, 39, 127–132. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.09.009.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Lowe, K., & Dotterer, A. M. (2013). Parental monitoring, parental warmth, and minority youths’ academic outcomes: Exploring the integrative model of parenting. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1413–1425. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9934-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Mason, W. A., Hitch, J. E., Kosterman, R., McCarty, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., & Hawkins, J. D. (2010). Growth in adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders, and risky sex: A comparison of youth from low-versus middle-income backgrounds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 1377–1385. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02292.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. McCutcheon, V. V., Agrawal, A., Heath, A. C., Edenberg, H. J., Hesselbrock, V. M., Schuckit, M. A., Kramer, J. R., & Bucholz, K. K. (2011). Functioning of alcohol use disorder criteria among men and women with arrests for driving under the influence of alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 1985–1993. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01550.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. McGue, M., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). The association of early adolescent problem behavior with adult psychopathology. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1118–1124. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.6.1118.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Miller, S. M., Siegel, J. T., Hohman, Z., & Crano, W. D. (2013). Factors mediating the association of the recency of parent’s marijuana use and their adolescent children’s subsequent initiation. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 848.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Morral, A. R., McCaffrey, D. F., & Chien, S. (2003). Measurement of adolescent drug use. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 35, 301–309.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus. The comprehensive modelling program for applied researchers: User’s guide, 5.

  45. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2004). National institute of alcohol abuse and alcoholism council approves definition of binge drinking. NIAAA newsletter.

  46. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2013). College drinking. Retrieved June, 24 2015, Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/CollegeFactSheet/CollegeFactSheet.pdf.

  47. Ornelas, I. J., Perreira, K. M., & Ayala, G. X. (2007). Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: A longitudinal study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4.

  48. Patrick, M. E., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2010). Alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking prevalence and predictors among national samples of american eighth- and tenth-grade students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 41–45.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. Patterson, G. R., Crosby, L., & Vuchinich, S. (1992). Predicting risk for early police arrest. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 8, 335–355. doi:10.1007/BF01093639.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Poelen, E. A. P., Scholte, R. H. J., Willemsen, G., Boomsma, D. I., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2007). Drinking by parents, siblings, and friends as predictors of regular alcohol use in adolescents and young adults: A longitudinal twin-family study. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 42, 362–369. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agm042.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Ramirez, J. R., Crano, W. D., Quist, R., Burgoon, M., Alvaro, E. M., & Grandpre, J. (2004). Acculturation, familism, parental monitoring, and knowledge as predictors of marijuana and inhalant use in adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 3–11. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.18.1.3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Rehm, J., Mathers, C., Popova, S., Thavorncharoensap, M., Teerawattananon, Y., & Patra, J. (2009). Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. The Lancet, 373, 2223–2233. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60746-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Roche, K. M., Ghazarian, S. R., Little, T. D., & Leventhal, T. (2011). Understanding links between punitive parenting and adolescent adjustment: The relevance of context and reciprocal associations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 448–460. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00681.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Roettger, M. E., Swisher, R. R., Kuhl, D. C., & Chavez, J. (2011). Paternal incarceration and trajectories of marijuana and other illegal drug use from adolescence into young adulthood: Evidence from longitudinal panels of males and females in the united states. Addiction, 106, 121–132. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03110.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Rothrauff, T. C., Cooney, T. M., & An, J. S. (2009). Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood. Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 64, 137–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). Overview of self-determination theory: An organismic-dialectical perspective. In E. L. Deci, R. M. Ryan, E. L. Deci, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3–33). Rochester: University of Rochester Press.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Ryan, S. M., Jorm, A. F., & Lubman, D. I. (2010). Parenting factors associated with reduced adolescent alcohol use: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 774–783. doi:10.1080/00048674.2010.501759.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Serido, J., Lawry, C., Li, G., Conger, K. J., & Russell, S. T. (2014). The associations of financial stress and parenting support factors with alcohol behaviors during young adulthood. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 35, 339–350. doi:10.1007/s10834-013-9376-x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. Shin, S. H., Edwards, E., Heeren, T., & Amodeo, M. (2009). Relationship between multiple forms of maltreatment by a parent or guardian and adolescent alcohol use. American Journal on Addictions, 18, 226–234.

  61. Sinharay, S., Stern, H. S., & Russell, D. (2001). The use of multiple imputation for the analysis of missing data. Psychological Methods, 6, 317–329. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.6.4.317.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Sloan, F. A., Eldred, L. M., & Davis, D. V. (2014). Addiction, drinking behavior, and driving under the influence. Substance Use and Misuse, 49, 661–676. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.858167.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  63. Stattin, H., & Kerr, M. (2000). Parental monitoring: A reinterpretation. Child Development, 71, 1072–1085. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00210.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Steinberg, L., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1, 19–36.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Results from the 2013 national survey on drug use and health: Summary of national findings. In SAMHSA (Ed.), NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Trinkner, R., Cohn, E. S., Rebellon, C. J., & Van Gundy, K. (2012). Don’t trust anyone over 30: Parental legitimacy as a mediator between parenting style and changes in delinquent behavior over time. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 119–132.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Tucker, L. R., & Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38, 1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Van Der Vorst, H., Engels, R. C., Meeus, W., & Deković, M. (2006). The impact of alcohol‐specific rules, parental norms about early drinking and parental alcohol use on adolescents’ drinking behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1299–1306.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Wainright, J. L., Russell, S. T., & Patterson, C. J. (2004). Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development, 75, 1886–1898. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00823.x.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Wood, M. D., Read, J. P., Mitchell, R. E., & Brand, N. H. (2004). Do parents still matter? Parent and peer influences on alcohol involvement among recent high school graduates. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 19–30.

  71. Wormington, S. V., Anderson, K. G., & Corpus, J. H. (2011). The role of academic motivation in high school students’ current and lifetime alcohol consumption: Adopting a self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 965–974.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. Yu, J. (2003). The association between parental alcohol-related behaviors and children’s drinking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 69, 253–262. doi:10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00324-1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Candice D. Donaldson.

Ethics declarations

Funding

Funding for this study was supported in part by the National Institute on Drug Abuse Grant R01-DA032698. NIDA had no role in the study design, collection, analysis or interpretation of the data, writing the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication. This research uses data from Add Health, a program project designed by J. Richard Udry, Peter S. Bearman, and Kathleen Mullan Harris, and funded by a grant P01-HD31921 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, with cooperative funding from 17 other agencies. Special acknowledgment is due Ronald R. Rindfuss and Barbara Entwisle for assistance in the original design. Persons interested in obtaining Data Files from Add Health should contact Add Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, 206 W. Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516-2524 (addhealth_contracts@unc.edu). No direct support was received from grant P01-HD31921 for this analysis.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board.

Informed Consent

The Add Health researchers obtained informed consent from all individual participants included in the study.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Donaldson, C.D., Handren, L.M. & Crano, W.D. The Enduring Impact of Parents’ Monitoring, Warmth, Expectancies, and Alcohol Use on Their Children’s Future Binge Drinking and Arrests: a Longitudinal Analysis. Prev Sci 17, 606–614 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-016-0656-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Underage drinking
  • Binge drinking
  • Arrests
  • Parental influence