Despite widespread concern about the frequent failure of trained prevention staff to continue to use evidence-based programs following periods of intensive training, little research has addressed the characteristics and experiences of counselors that might predict their sustained use of a program. The current study follows a sample of school counselors who were trained to use an indicated preventive intervention, the Coping Power program, in an earlier dissemination study, and determines their levels of continued use of the program’s child and parent components in the 2 years following the counselors’ intensive training in the program. Counselor characteristics and experiences were also examined as predictors of their sustained use of the program components. The Coping Power program addresses children’s emotional regulation, social cognitive processes, and increases in positive interpersonal behaviors with at-risk children who have been screened to have moderate to high levels of aggressive behavior. The results indicated that counselors’ perceptions of interpersonal support from teachers within their schools, their perceptions of the effectiveness of the program, and their expectations for using the program were all predictive of program use over the following 2 years. In addition, certain counselor personality characteristics (i.e., conscientiousness) and the level of actual teacher-rated behavior change experienced by the children they worked with during training were predictors of counselors’ use of the program during the second year after training. These results indicate the central importance of teacher support and of child progress during training in the prediction of counselors’ sustained use of a prevention program.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471–500.
Casper, E. S. (2008). Using implementation intentions to teach practitioners: Changing practice behaviors via continuing education. Psychiatric Services, 59, 747–752.
Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO- FFI) professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
DeRousie, R. M., & Bierman, K. L. (2012). Examining the sustainability of an evidence-based preschool curriculum: The REDI program. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27, 55–65.
Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Malone, P. S., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2008). Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the development of serious violence in adolescence. Child Development, 79, 1907–1927.
Durlak, J. A., & DuPre, E. P. (2008). Implementation matters: A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 327–350.
Elias, M. J., & Kamarinos, P. (2003). Sustainability of school-based preventive, social-emotional programs: A model site study. Toronto: Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association.
Forman, S. G., Olin, S. S., Hoagwood, K. E., Crowe, M., & Saka, N. (2009). Evidence-based intervention in schools: Developers’ views of implementation barriers and facilitators. School Mental Health, 1, 26–36.
Goldstein, N. E. S., Kemp, K. A., Leff, S. S., & Lochman, J. E. (2012). Guidelines for adapting manualized interventions for new target populations: A step‐wise approach using anger management as a model. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 19, 385–401.
Han, S. S., & Weiss, B. (2005). Sustainability of teacher implementation of school-based mental health programs. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 665–679.
Klimes-Dougan, B., August, G. J., Chih-Yuan, S. L., Realmuto, G. M., Bloomquist, M. L., Horowitz, J. L., & Eisenberg, T. L. (2009). Practitioner and site characteristics that relate to fidelity of implementation: The early risers prevention program in a going-to-scale intervention trial. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 467–475.
Kokko, K., Tremblay, R. E., Lacourse, E., Nagin, D. S., & Vitaro, F. (2006). Trajectories of prosocial behavior and physical aggression in middle childhood: Links to adolescent school dropout and physical violence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 403–428.
Langley, A. K., Nadeem, E., Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., & Jaycox, L. H. (2010). Evidence-based mental health programs in schools: Barriers and facilitators of successful implementation. School Mental Health, 2, 105–113.
Lanza, S. T., Rhodes, B. L., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., & Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2010). Modeling the interplay of multilevel risk factors for future academic and behavior problems: A person-centered approach. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 313–335.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2002a). Contextual social-cognitive mediators and child outcome: A test of the theoretical model in the coping power program. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 945–967.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2002b). The coping power program at the middle school transition: Universal and indicated prevention effects. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 16, S40–S54.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2003). Effectiveness of the coping power program and of classroom intervention with aggressive children: Outcomes at a 1-year follow-up. Behavior Therapy, 34, 493–515.
Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2004). The coping power program for preadolescent aggressive boys and their parents: outcome effects at the 1-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 571–578.
Lochman, J.E., Wells, K.C., & Lenhart, L.A. (2008). Coping Power child group program: Facilitator guide. New York: Oxford.
Lochman, J. E., Powell, N., Boxmeyer, C., Qu, L., Wells, K., & Windle, M. (2009). Implementation of a school-based prevention program: Effects of counselor and school characteristics. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 476–497.
Lochman, J. E., Boxmeyer, C., Powell, N., Qu, L., Wells, K., & Windle, M. (2012). Coping Power dissemination study: Intervention and special education effects on academic outcomes. Behavioral Disorders, 37, 192–205.
Lochman, J. E., Wells, K. C., Qu, L., & Chen, L. (2013). Three-year follow-up of coping power intervention effects: Evidence of neighborhood moderation? Prevention Science, 14, 364–376.
Lochman, J. E., Baden, R. E., Boxmeyer, C. L., Powell, N. P., Qu, L., Salekin, K. L., & Windle, M. (2014). Does a booster intervention augment the preventive effects of an abbreviated version of the coping power program for aggressive children? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 367–381.
Lyon, A. R., Frazier, S. L., Mehta, T., Atkins, M. S., & Weisbach, J. (2011). Easier said than done: Intervention sustainability in an urban after-school program. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38, 504–517.
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). BASC: Behavior assessment system for children manual. Circle Pines: American Guidance Service, Inc.
Schoenwald, S. K., Sheidow, A. J., & Letourneau, E. J. (2004). Toward effective quality assurance in evidence-based practice: Links between expert consultation, therapist fidelity, and child outcomes. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 94–104.
Tibbits, M. K., Bumbarger, B. K., Kyler, S. J., & Perkins, D. F. (2010). Sustaining evidence-based interventions under real-world conditions: Results from a large-scale diffusion project. Prevention Science, 11, 252–262.
Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 249–268.
Wells, K.C., Lochman, J.E., & Lenhart, L.A. (2008). Coping Power parent group program: Facilitator guide. New York: Oxford.
Wingspread Conference. (2004). Wingspread declaration on school connections. Journal of School Health, 74, 233–234.
The completion of this study was supported by a grant, awarded to the first author, from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA016135)
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Lochman and Wells are coauthors on the manual for the Coping Power Program published by Oxford University Press. There are no other disclosures for the other authors.
About this article
Cite this article
Lochman, J.E., Powell, N.P., Boxmeyer, C.L. et al. Counselor-Level Predictors of Sustained Use of an Indicated Preventive Intervention for Aggressive Children. Prev Sci 16, 1075–1085 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-014-0511-1
- Sustained use
- Counselor perceptions
- Counselor personality