Advertisement

Prevention Science

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 374–385 | Cite as

Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training for Childcare Professionals: An Independent Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial of Stewards of Children

  • Alyssa A. Rheingold
  • Kristyn Zajac
  • Jason E. Chapman
  • Meghan Patton
  • Michael de Arellano
  • Benjamin Saunders
  • Dean Kilpatrick
Article

Abstract

Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There is a growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g., teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was to conduct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats. This study included 352 childcare professionals recruited from children’s advocacy centers across three states. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) in-person training, (2) web-based training, or (3) waitlist control. Dependent variables included CSA knowledge, CSA attitudes, and self-reported CSA preventive behaviors. Results indicated that Stewards impacted knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors. No differences were found between training modalities (i.e., in-person versus web-based) on knowledge and preventive behaviors. Results indicate that brief trainings for childcare professionals may impact CSA prevention efforts.

Keywords

Child sexual abuse Prevention Childcare professionals 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (R49/CE000890-01; PI Rheingold). The views contained in this report do not necessarily represent those of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention or its associated agencies. The authors would like to thank Angela Brunner, Anne Lee, Kathy Townsend, Suryani Capps, Jeannie Owens, Elaine Knobbs, Kate Liedel, Tiffany Sawyer, and Nedra Manners for their contributions to this project.

References

  1. Bolen, R. M. (2003). Child sexual abuse: Prevention or promotion? Social Work, 48, 174–185.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boyle, C., & Lutzker, J. (2005). Teaching young children to discriminate abusive from nonabusive situations using multiple exemplars in a modified discrete trial teaching format. Journal of Family Violence, 20, 55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burgess, E. S., & Wurtele, S. K. (1998). Enhancing parent–child communication about sexual abuse: A pilot study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 1167–1175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005). Adverse childhood experiences study: Data and statistics. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Retrieved December 14, 2012 from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/ace/prevalence.htm.
  5. Chen, L. P., Murad, M. H., Paras, M. L., Colbenson, K. M., Sattler, A. L., Goranson, E. N., et al. (2011). Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85, 618–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collings, S. J. (1997). Development, reliability, and validity of the Child Sexual Abuse Myth Scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 665–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  8. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Chaffin, M. (2009). Juveniles who commit sex offenses against minors. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/227763.pdf.
  9. Gadomski, A. W., Wolff, D., Tripp, M., Lewis, C., & Short, L. M. (2001). Changes in health care providers’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding domestic violence following a multifaceted intervention. Academic Medicine, 76, 1045–1052.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. George, T. (2002). E-Government gets going with E-training portal. Information Week. Retrieved January 14, 2005, from http://www.informationweek.com.
  11. Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2009). Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet, 373, 68–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gruninger, U. J. (1995). Patient education: An example of one-to-one communication. Journal of Human Hypertension, 9, 15–25.Google Scholar
  13. Harris, J. M., Kutob, R. M., Surprenant, Z. J., Maiuro, R. D., & Delate, T. A. (2002). Can internet-based education improve physician confidence in dealing with domestic violence? Family Medicine, 34, 287–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hazzard, A., Kleemeier, C., Pohl, J., & Webb, C. (1988). Child sexual abuse prevention: Teacher training workshop curriculum. Atlanta: Emory University School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  15. Kazdin, A. E. (1992). Methodological issues and strategies in clinical research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelly, J. A., & St. Lawrence, J. S. (1988). AIDS prevention and treatment: Psychology’s role in the health crisis. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 255–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Macnair-Semands, R. R., Cody, W. K., & Simono, R. B. (1997). Sexual behavior change associated with a college HIV course. AIDS Care, 9, 727–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maniglio, R. (2009). The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews. Clinical Psychology Reviews, 29, 647–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mikton, C., & Butchart, A. (2009). Child maltreatment prevention: A systematic review of reviews. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87, 353–361.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Randolph, M. K., & Gold, C. A. (1994). Child sexual abuse prevention: Evaluation of a teacher training program. School Psychology Review, 23, 485–495.Google Scholar
  21. Rau, T. J., Merrill, L. L., McWhorter, S. K., Stander, V. A., Thomsen, C. J., Dyslin, C. W., et al. (2011). Evaluation of a sexual assault education/prevention program for female U. S. Navy personnel. Military Medicine, 176, 1178–1183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  23. Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., Congdon, R., & du Toit, M. (2009). HLM 6: Hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling [computer software and manual]. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  24. Rheingold, A. A., Campbell, C., Self-Brown, S., de Arellano, M. A., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2007). Prevention of child sexual abuse: Evaluation of a community media campaign. Child Maltreatment, 12, 352–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rodrigue, J. R. (1996). Promoting healthier behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs toward sun exposure in parents of young children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64, 1431–1436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Satcher, D. (2001). The surgeon general’s call to action to promote sexual health and responsible behavior. Washington, DC: Government Publications. Available: http://phs.os.dhbs.gov/library/sexualhealth/call.ht.
  27. Schneider, M. L., Ituarte, P., & Stokolos, D. (1993). Evaluation of a community bicycle helmet promotion campaign. American Journal of Health Promotion, 7, 281–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Topping, K. J., & Barron, I. G. (2009). School-based child sexual abuse prevention programs: A review of effectiveness. Review of Educational Research, 79, 431–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child Maltreatment 2009. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_research/index.htm#can on March 10, 2011.
  30. Wurtele, S. K. (2009). Preventing sexual abuse of children in the twenty-first century: Preparing for challenges and opportunities. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 18, 1–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Wurtele, S. K., Kast, L. C., & Melzer, A. M. (1992). Sexual abuse prevention education for young children: A comparison of teachers and parents as instructors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 865–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wurtele, S. K., Moreno, T., & Kenny, M. (2008). Evaluation of a sexual abuse prevention workshop for parents of young children. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 1, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Prevention Research 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alyssa A. Rheingold
    • 1
  • Kristyn Zajac
    • 2
  • Jason E. Chapman
    • 2
  • Meghan Patton
    • 1
  • Michael de Arellano
    • 1
  • Benjamin Saunders
    • 1
  • Dean Kilpatrick
    • 1
  1. 1.National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA
  2. 2.Family Services Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations